Periodontitis Papers

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Periodontitis is a collection of inflammatory diseases affecting the periodontium and the supporting tissue. It is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with gram- negative anaerobic bacteria present in the dental biofilm which leads to irreversible impairment of periodontium. Periodontitis results in a continuous release of bacteria into saliva and to a certain degree into blood. These periodontal pathogens travel into the person’s blood stream and it has been liked to many other diseases including heart disease, stroke, diabetes, pregnancy complications and rheumatoid arthritis. Adult periodontitis is the most common form of periodontal disease. Often in the early stages of periodontal disease there is little or no pain and the…show more content…
Smokers show reduced clinical signs of inflammation in response to plaque formation on the teeth”( Karnman,187). This reaction is because nicotine constricts the gingival blood vessels which causes the reduction in gingival signs of bleeding and redness. Smoking also suppresses immune host responses.
When you smoke, the number of white blood cells which are the cells that defend your body from the infections stay high. This is a sign that the body is under constantly fighting against the inflammation and damage caused by tobacco. Tobacco reduces the amount of saliva production as well as antibodies in saliva. It decreases salivary IgA and IgG proteins. Lower saliva production also causes increased plaque, calculus production, and enamel caries.

Smoking has important effects on oral bacteria. Smoking increases the speed at which plaque develops. Smoking causes increase in anaerobic plaque bacteria. This is the bacteria that does not require oxygen for growth. These bacteria is present in the pockets and this is why smokers have significantly greater probing depths and bone loss than a person that doesn’t smoke because of the presence of the
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Since the body needs white blood cells to fight of infection the reduction of blood flow to the gingival tissue makes it difficult to fight the disease.

Smokers respond less favorably to periodontal treatment, whether is surgical or nonsurgical, mucogingival surgery is not recommended in these patients. Smoking is associated with increased risk of implant failure, increased risk of postoperative infections, and greater marginal bone loss. Patients with a history of periodontitis may also be associated with peri-implant biological complications. Periodic periodontal therapy may assist in reducing the incidence of peri-implantitis. When surgical intervention is considered to improve peri-implant supportive tissues, smoking or smoking history may compromise healing and the treatment outcome. The best method to reduce the effect of smoking on implant failure and peri-implant disease is to quit smoking. In smokers following non-surgical therapy including scaling, root planning and professional tooth cleaning, they respond less favorable to the treatment. The packet depths as well as gingival bleeding stays the same. These complications could relate
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