International Journal of Multimedia and Ubiquitous Engineering, Vol.8, No. 5, pp.283-296.  Sonia Waharte, Raouf Boutaba, Youssef Iraqi & Brent Ishibashi. 6, July 2006. "Routing Protocols in Wireless Mesh Networks: Challenges and Design Considerations."
The reliable broadcast service ensures that all the hosts in the network deliver the same set of messages to the upper layer. The protocols that are used in wired networks are unsuitable for deployment on MANETs, as these do not take into account the node mobility, network load and congestion. There have been a lot of protocols which are proposed for reliable broadcasting in MANETs. A straight forward way is by Simple Flooding [1, 2] which is very costly and very inefficient. The other protocols are Probability based methods , Area Based Methods  and Neighbor Knowledge Methods [4, 5, 6 and 7].
• Routing. Wireless links are affected by interference and multi-path fading. Therefore, routing solutions should consider radio-related metrics. Furthermore, routing protocols for ad hoc networks introduce overhead to handle link failures. However, in mesh networks link failures rarely occur, therefore, the overhead is intolerable.
Network utilization by legacy Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is determined by its Round Trip Time (RTT) dependent mechanisms for flow control and loss recovery. The RTT estimation does not always reflect actual network conditions especially in case of Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN). It can in turn influence the mechanisms falsely. This article proposes a Cross-Layer mechanism between Medium Access Control (MAC) and TCP for correcting RTT estimation at sender and subsequent TCP actions for better performance in WLAN. Authors have come with a novel proposal with two refinements.
Hence, it can be easily implemented in practice. Keywords: multihop wireless networks , rate based scheduling, throughput, window based flow control, I.INTRODUCTION The joint congestion control and scheduling problem in multihop wireless networks has been extensively studied in the literature. Often, each user is associated with a non decreasing and concave utility function of its rate, and a cross-layer utility maximization important as well because, practical congestion control protocols need to set retransmission timeout values based on the packet delay, and such parameters could significantly impact the speed of recovery when packet loss occurs. Packet delay is also important for multimedia traffic, some of which have been carried on congestion-controlled sessions.There are two major issues on the delay-performance of the back-pressure algorithm. First, for long flows, the end-to-end delay may grow quadratically with the number of hops.
Continuing with this rationale, the disadvantage of this type of approach, however, is that Moore's Law and gigabit switches are generally incompatible. Typo is derived from the synthesis of congestion control. Furthermore, indeed, SCSI disks and evolutionary programmin... ... middle of paper ... ...ory 17 (Mar. 2001), 50-65.  Ritchie, D., and Leiserson, C. Controlling e-business using constant-time modalities.
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Kwiatkowska, C. Constantinou, “A biologically inspired QoS routing algorithm for mobile ad hoc networks”, International Journal of Wireless Mobile Computing, 2010, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 64-75.
b.) What is the major disadvantage of analog signal? Describe. When comes to analog signal, the main disadvantages are recognized as limited accuracy because of limited tolerances of transistors and limited flexibility for adaption. Goleniewski (2006, p. 19) says through the transmitting of analog signalling, noise is always negletable.
2181–2184.  J. Yi et al., Multipath optimized link state routing for mobile ad hoc networks, Ad Hoc Netw. (2010),doi:10.1016/j.adhoc.2010.04.007  J. Vazifehdan et al., On the lifetime of node-to-node communication in wireless ad hoc networks, Com-put. Netw. (2012), doi:10.1016/j.comnet.2011.12.014  Asokan, R., Natarajan, A.M., Nivetha, A.: ‘A swarm-based distance vector routing to support multiple quality of service (QoS) metrics in mobile ad hoc networks’, J. Comput.