Therefore, when bacteria are attacked by an antibiotic, the ones that are immune to the antibiotic survive and live on to reproduce and pass on the resistant DNA to the next generation. Recently, this has been a drastic problem facing the medical community because “The hope of addressing this crisis by developing new antibiotics is diminished both by the low rate of novel antibiotic discovery and by the likelihood that pathogens will evolve resistance to novel antibiotics just as they have to existing antibiotics” (Palmer and Kisho... ... middle of paper ... ...reationism vs. Evolution. Ed. Eric Braun. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2005.
However, frequent mutations of bacteria cause today’s strains to become more resistant. One of many ways which bacteria undergo mutation is through horizontal transfer of genes (Lindsay J.A., 2013). The war against disease is a battle that humanity has fought for centuries, and only recently has the development of penicillin switched that tide of war in our favor. However, with the advent of methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus and even vancomycin resistant staphylococcus aureus, the prospect of this battle is not promising (Bobenchik et al., 2013). Thus, it is crucial to test bacteria for antibiotic resistance to utilize antibiotics that battle with bacteria properly.
Though evolution is impossible to stop, humans have also played a role in speeding up the process of antibiotic resistant bacteria; from misdiagnosing illnesses to dumping old antibiotics in the trash, all over the world people play a role in whether we win or lose this battle against bacteria. Antibiotics are essential for fighting off illnesses caused by pathogenic bacteria.... ... middle of paper ... ...gy 11.1 (2010): 2-12. Academic Search Premier. Web. 21 Nov. 2011.
Strains of bacteria that are resistant to all prescribed antibiotics are beginning to appear. As a result, diseases such as tuberculosis and penicillin-resistant gonorrhea are reemerging on a worldwide scale (1). Resistance first appears in a population of bacteria through conditions that favor its selection. When an antibiotic attacks a group of bacteria, cells that are highly susceptible to the medicine will die. On the other hand, cells that have some resistance from the start or acquire it later may survive.
Antibiotic remained effective against most bacterial infection, however these bacterial cells develop resistance and continue to divide resulting in a resistant population and some are no longer effective against infectious disease that was killed few years ago (Levy, 2000). The impact of antibiotic resistance could lead to more infectious diseases that are hard to treat and could result in a global threat making it difficult as mutation and evolutionary pressure cause increase in antibiotic resistance (Strelkauskas et al, 2010). Antibiotics are extremely important medicine but unfortunately bacteria become resistant make it problematic as antibiotic resistance had posed problem around the world people continued to travel and modern technology and sociology exacerbated the development of resistant strains, these strains are transferred from infected people causing a repeat in cycle as they moved from one place to the next (WHO, 2001). Increased globalisation is responsible for resistance, in large overpopulated cities... ... middle of paper ... ...a also modified penicillin binding proteins. Some resistant bacteria could be dangerous for example; MRSA and the vancomycin resistant staphylococcus auerus that are virulent in human pathogens (Strelkauskas, 2010) by reducing the permeability of their membranes as a way of keeping out antibiotic by turning off production of porin and other proteins (Weston, 2008), for example; the multi-drug resistant mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Antibiotic resistance is a major problem that continues to expand as it threatens the lives of individuals throughout the world. Antibiotic medications are used to treat infections or diseases caused by bacteria. Antibiotics can save lives; however, the overuse or misuse of antibiotic drugs causes antibiotics to lose their effectiveness over time. Society needs to take action to slow the growing problem of antibiotic resistance by correctly taking antibiotics and by eliminating the excessive use of antibiotics. All bacteria have the potential to develop a resistance to antibiotics.
The discovery of antibiotics in the 20th century was a major advancement in medicine. At the time of the discovery, war was taking place, which resulted in a plethora of infected wounds. Antibiotics can be described as a use, laboratory effect, or an action of a chemical compound (Clardy et al). Selman Waksman first used the term in 1941 when describing the small molecules made by microorganisms that prevent the growth of other microorganisms (Clardy et al). Antibiotics helped control the infection which allowed many who were injured a second chance to live.
Eventually , many of the bacterial species that was intended to kill continued to survive treat... ... middle of paper ... ...resistant organisms in the population they have a much higher fitness compared to the sensitive population , which results in the dominance of resistance cell types . The discoveries of antibiotics lead to a key improvement in human health in the early 20th century . In a larger context , antibiotics resistance is a continually evolving and dangerous problem that requires immediate attention and future planning . If this problem is not combated it can lead to a bad humanity where death is on the rise from these resistant bacteria with no cure . Efficacy of current therapies is waning and antibiotics are a temporary fix to bacterial multi-drug resistance .
Meningococcal Disease Treatments and Vaccines Meningococcal disease is a large concern in the medical field because it is unbiased towards the patients it infects. There has been limited success in trying to eliminate this disease. Antibiotics play a role in helping to treat patients with bacterial meningitis, and steroids have been tested to help reduce risk factors. Prevention has also become a key issue because meningitis can only be spread through direct contact with infected body fluid. The best prevention is to maintain clean hygiene.
The best way you can protect yourself and your family against drug-resistant bacteria is by using antibiotics correctly. Taking them when they’re not needed encourages the takeover of drug-resistant strains in your body. (Redbook, pg.95) That’s because when antibiotics are given, the normal bacteria in your body are killed off, leaving lots of bacterial “parking spaces'; open. And the germ left to fill them is the drug-resistant ones. (Redbook, pg.95) So far, antibiotic resistance has not been a big problem with streptococcus A, the germ familiar to all of us for causing millions of cases of strep thr... ... middle of paper ... ...k two nurses to change the dressing- one to lift the folds of skin and the other to pack the wound.