Linking instruction and assessment is critical to effective learning. Educators should provide students with various options for learning that include: different ways to learning (style and time), di... ... middle of paper ... ...re provided with ample opportunities to demonstrate their abilities. MI theory is used as formal and informal assessment in the classroom to allow students to be grasp and understand concepts. The use of multiple types of assessments in the classroom yield richer and more qualitative information about a child's achievement. If the ultimate goal is student learning, then there is a place for both standardized testing and authentic assessment using the MI theory in today's classroom.
Krause, Bochner and Duchesne (p.157) comment that “as learners interact with their environment, they link information learned through experience to previous knowledge, and so construct new understandings and knowledge.” Constructivism then inturn encourages Teachers and Learning Managers to recognise the value of prior knowledge and experiences that each child brings with them into the classroom, and help them (the students) build on their understandings of the world by providing appropriate learning experience plans. This practise of effective teaching and learning has relatively new in classrooms but has already made a great difference in the students’ abilities and interests both in and out of their studies. Constructivist teaching recognises and validates the student’s point of view rather then the necessity of a correct answer. The child is then able to reassess their knowledge and understandings, which in turn boosts self-esteem and confidence. It also encourages children to be involved in classroom activities by self-questioning, seeking answers, comparing situations and establishing links between different ideas.
It is also important that materials chosen will help all students succeed in school regardless of their abilities, backgrounds, cultures, or linguistic differences. By understanding and respecting the various cultures and languages that are found in the classroom today educators will choose educational resources that will encourage and support student achievement. First, we will look at the area of the design of the learning resource, and several of the criteria’s that that fall under this category. Lesson design is important when choosing resources, as teacher must select materials in order to meet the learning objectives. The learning resource must contain information that is accurate and aligned with the learning objective.
The development of learning skills is needed to succeed in school. Independent learning is frequently related with other approaches to learning such as student-centered learning. The gradual release of responsibility strategy is a successful way for moving classroom instruction from teacher-centered to student-centered collaboration and independent practice. While students have full responsibility for outcome, teachers provide feedback, evaluate, and determine level of understanding. Teacher must reflect how well students evaluate, assess, and modify plans to complete tasks and meet goals; accepts responsibility for own behaviour; follow classroom instructions without supervision.
INTRODUCTION Learning model can dedefinisikan as a conceptual framework that depicts the procedure of organizing systematic learning experience to achieve a certain goal belejar, and serves as a guide for instructional designers and teachers in planning and implementing learning activities (Siberman, 2005). Problem based Learning provides active learning, independent, and self-contained, so as to produce students who are capable of independent self study continuing for life. In a model of learning problem-based learning class more lively atmosphere deiigan discussion, debate, controversy clan, greater student curiosity, problem based learning is a teaching method that is motivating students to achieve academic success. (Savery, 2006) describes
One important aspect to make students’ learning valuable is to focus the planning in setting objectives in terms of desired outcomes (knowledge skills, attitudes, values) that we want our students to develop. By developing clear objectives, students feel that there is a reason for learning. Also, it is important to provide feedback, because it helps students improve their goals’ achievement and solidify their understanding. Teachers need to communicate objectives, in this way students will be able to know what they are doing in class and what they are supposed to learn. Some recommendations for setting objectives in the classroom are: Set learning objectives that are specific but not restrictive: it is important to know the specific standards, benchmarks and supporting learning that students at school are required to learn.
Collaborative assessments allow students to get involved in the assessment process. Students who are included in this process are better able to take on a dynamic role in their own learning. When students have a clear grasp of their own strengths, weaknesses and abilities they are better able to set, monitor and meet learning objectives. Self and peer assessments are two examples of formative assessments that permit students to become engaged in their own learning. They make effective use of self-centered teaching; one of Mosston and Ashworth’s eleven teaching styles.
Whilst in the class room it is up to the teacher to accommodate for students differing motivational influences. The teacher’s responsibility is to provide an environment that enhances students’ motivation to pursue academic goals actively over a long period of time. A teacher is as effective as the plan they undertake to teach and learn. In determining what constitutes an effective teacher specific consideration should be given to various areas that encompass effective teaching and learning such as knowledge of child development, planning, teaching and learning strategies and knowledge of Curriculum content. Teaching and Learning Strategies: Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: There are two main motivational influences intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.
According to University of Hawai’i Manoa, developing student learning outcomes “helps students learn more effectively and make clear what students should expect from their educational experience”. For example, it is very important that teachers must show, read out, or write the learning outcomes on the board at beginning of lesson so that student can always refer and look at it to expect what they are going to learn and gain from the lesson. Not only that but, with the help of the teachers and the guiding questions and activities will help the students achieve the lesson outcomes. According to Goucher College, writing a lesson outcome “increased student awareness of their own learning which give students a way to think and talk about what they have learned and make it easier for students to “know what they know” and give them a language to communicate what they know to others. For example, when teacher give questions and activities for students to do, it should be questions and activities that will facilitates students learning and help them met the outcomes.
Self-assessment sparks better student learning as students are reflecting on their learning and are able to see more clearly their strengths and weaknesses. To become lifelong learners self-assessment is essential. Self-assessment in post-primary schools helps students learn to learn (Sebba et al., 2008). ‘For example the explicit goals of the self-assessment might include identifying specific areas for future improvement. If this is achieved it might be regarded as an important outcome relating to learning to learn.’ (Sebba et al., 2008).