The person has continues a life of sobriety (A Process to Understand How We Approach Recovery From Addiction). Although addiction is often glamorized by music artists, it is a serious disease and can affect anyone. It’s important to understand that although it may seem like it, addicts do not choose to be addicts. Addiction affects the brain, altering our neurons and misbalancing our chemicals. Almost anything can turn into an addiction, so it is important to be aware of our actions, and how we react to stressors.
As it was explained to the patients of this study (Elkins, 1980), this procedure was designed to alter the drink... ... middle of paper ... ...an be concluded that these methods are valid forms of conditioning that prove to be effective in altering human behaviour. It has been proven that personal adaptation can result from conditioning the body. Furthermore, from the results of both studies, we can deduce that conditional learning of a subject can be quite influential to the individual’s drinking behaviour and attitude toward alcohol. Works Cited Elkins, R. L. (1980). Covert Sensitization Treatment of Alcoholism: Contributions of Successful Conditioning to Subsequent Abstinence Maintenance.
1The treatment of drug addiction through operant conditioning includes the use of cue exposure. It relies on the identification of the trigger events that are most effective to the addict and hope to reduce the impact by extinction. The client exposes to the triggers without exposure or use of the drug. The exposure to the trigger without the use is bound to reduce the craving from the drug. The continuous repetition of the exercise reduces the craving however the client may relapse if the event does not continue.
Before we can examine why these people are addicted to drugs, one must first define the word addict. George F. Koob defines addiction as a compulsion to take a drug without control over the intake and a chronic relapse disorder (1). The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders of the American Psychiatric Association defined "substance dependence" as a syndrome basically equivalent to addiction, and the diagnostic criteria used to describe the symptoms of substance dependence to a large extent define compulsion and loss of control of drug intake (1). Considering drug addiction as a disorder implies that there are some biological factors as well as social factors. There are many biological factors that are involved with the addicted brain.
Systematic desensitisation works by reconditioning people so that the conditioned stimulus elicits relaxation instead of anxiety. This is called counterconditioning. Counterconditioning is an attempt to reverse the process of classical conditioning by associating the crucial stimulus with a new conditioned response (Weiten, 1998). This technique's effectiveness in eliminating agoraphobia is well documented.
The neurobiological actions of the drug, genetics, family history, environment, and underlying psychiatric diseases contribute to drug addiction. Drugs such as nicotine, alcohol, cocaine, amphetamines, narcotics, and marijuana are addictive drugs. However, hallucinogens and MDMA may be illegal and responsible for health problems, but are not addictive. Addictive drugs can be defined as drugs that people will voluntarily self-administer, cause an increase in dopamine, and lower the threshold for brain stimulation reward. Although all addictive drugs share a final result of releasing dopamine, each drug has a different way of achieving that effect.
It often does this by binding to the receptor site triggering the same signals that the natural neurotransmitter would. The more an opioid does to interact with its designated receptor; the more efficient the agonist becomes (Nutt, 1997, p. 53). Simply, agonists work at a maximal efficiency. Two major mechanisms have been found in the brain that mediates drug addiction - the dopamine and endogenous opioid systems. The release of dopamine from... ... middle of paper ... ...ld be reduced medically, but cannot be done because of their addictive demeanor.
An addiction not only can affect and ruin an individual’s health and quality of life, but it has wider reaching effects, as the individual may be seen as a burden or threat on their family and friends as well as the health care system and surrounding society. This report will be focusing on substance dependant addiction, mainly drugs and alcohol, and the risk factors making people more susceptible to it. In this report I will ask and address the following questions: Are there genetic, environmental or neurobiological factors which make some people particularly vulnerable to becoming addicted to drugs or alcohol? And, how do these factors interact? Although I shall mainly be covering in detail the genetic, neurobiological and some environmental factors explaining why some people are more likely to develop addictions than others, I shall briefly mention some other risk factors and explain how they may lead to addictions.
The altered states of consciousness produced by drugs presents an all-to-common phenomenon in today’s society. Whether the desired sensation comes in the form of energy, a means of relaxation, or pain reduction, many people go to great lengths and present their bodies to threatening conditions in order to achieve this euphoric “high.” Unfortunately, the use of these drugs very often comes with dangerous side effects that users must learn to manage with for the rest of their life. According to neuroscientists, our entire conscious existence bases itself off of the lighting-fast reactions occurring in our nervous system (Nichols, 2012). Therefore, changing these neurological reactions can permanently effect our conscious being (Blatter, 2012). The physical and neurological effects from the use and abuse of stimulants, sedatives, hallucinogens, organic solvents, and athletic performance enhancing drugs will be discussed in order to better comprehend why certain individuals expose themselves to such dangerous materials with seemingly no regard to the permanent consequences associated with such actions.
Combating the destructive effects of drug addiction is an important social and scientific goal. Definitions of addiction abound in the literature, but Goodman offers the most clear behavioral characterization of a complex disorder, arguing that addiction involves, “(1) recurrent failure to control the use of one or more drugs, and (2) continuation of drug use despite significant harmful consequences” . Much recent research has focused on gaining an understanding of the neural mechanisms that cause these behaviors in hopes of discovering novel ways of attenuating their effects, a task which has been far from simple. Nestler asserts that addiction can be seen as a “form of drug-induced neural plasticity” but the exact type of plasticity remains in question. Some workers posit that drug use causes neuroadaptations which result in tolerance while others argue that addiction is mediated in just the opposite fashion, by sensitizing neuroadaptations .