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Pathophysiology Of Glaucoma

explanatory Essay
860 words
860 words
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Glaucoma is defined as a slow, progressive disease that causes an increase in intraocular pressure against the optic nerve (Potter and Perry, 2015). Glaucoma can also be described as groups of disease that damage the optic nerve in the eye. The optic nerve sends information from the eye to the brain. Most of the time glaucoma is progressive, silent, and can be untreatable if the disease is too far along. Glaucoma causes loss of peripheral vision, central vision and blindness in the later stages (Williams and Hopper, 2015).

Pathophysiology and Causes Primary glaucoma is the most common type and it can be divided into two categories: acute angle-closure glaucoma (AACG) and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). AACG happens when …show more content…

In this essay, the author

  • Defines glaucoma as a slow, progressive disease that causes an increase in intraocular pressure against the optic nerve.
  • Explains that asians, people who are nearsighted, and women older than 45 years of age are more at risk for developing aacg.
  • Explains that aacg symptoms include severe pain, blurred vision, rainbow lights, photophobia, eye redness, tearing, and a "steamy" cornea.
  • Explains that tonometry is one way to detect increased intraocular pressure. gdx access is a laser that detects nerve damage before the patient has any signs or symptoms of glaucoma.
  • Explains that primary glaucoma is the most common type and can be divided into two categories: acute angle-closure and primary open-angle.
  • Explains that glaucoma treatment is focused on letting the aqueous fluid flow freely. miotics constrict the pupil to allow the fluid to flow past.

This causes the fluid from the aqueous humor not to drain or become blocked. Secondary glaucoma usually occurs when there is an infection, injuries, or tumors. A third form of glaucoma can result from having abnormalities at birth (Williams and Hopper, 2015).
Etiology and Risk Factors Asians, people who are nearsighted, and women older than 45 years of age are more at risk for developing AACG. People age 40 and older, diabetics, and those with a family history of glaucoma are more at risk for developing POAG. POAG also occurs 4 to 5 times more in African Americans than European Americans (Williams and Hopper, 2015).
Signs and Symptoms Symptoms of AACG include: severe pain, blurred vision, rainbow lights, photophobia, eye redness, tearing and a "steamy" cornea. POAG symptoms are usually gradual and cause no pain, although people may experience mild aching eyes, vision changes, halos around lights, and headaches. An increase in intraocular pressure can also cause nausea and vomiting (Williams and Hopper, …show more content…

Doctors prescribe miotics for this. Miotics constrict the pupil to allow the iris to move farther away from the drainage duct to allow the aqueous fluid to flow past. Examples of miotics include: Isopto and Pilocar, Other treatments help to slow the production of the aqueous fluid and those medications that help that include: carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, adrenergic agonists, and beta blockers. To reduce inflammation, steroid eye drops may also be given and glaucoma patients need lifelong eye drops given daily. Mydriatic medications are not given to patients who suffer from acute angle-closure glaucoma because they can cause blindness. Examples of mydriatics include: Benadryl, Vistaril, and atropine (Williams and Hopper, 2015). Another method of treatment is surgery. Sometimes, medications no longer work for some people so they need to undergo surgery. Surgery for glaucoma is usually helpful because it provides an opening for the aqueous fluid to flow freely instead of getting trapped in the eye. Laser Peripheral Iridotomy or surgical iridotomy can be performed on AACG patients. This is a noninvasive procedure that cuts away part of the iris to allow fluid to flow around it. Surgical treatment for PAOG includes laser trabeculoplasty. This creates a bigger opening for the drainage duct (Williams and Hopper,

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