In J. H. Flavell & E. M. Markman (Eds. ), Handbook of Child Psychology, Vol. 3: Cognitive Development, 4th edition. (pp. 495– 555).
The children of the authoritarian parents has an unhappy disposition and are rather anxious and withdrawn, do well in school but has poor reactions to frustrations and are not likely to engage in antisocial activities while the children of the permissive parents have poor emotion regulation, low persistence to challenging tasks, antisocial behaviours and become rebellious when desires are not met (Baumrind, 1966,pg. 887-907). “Mothers and fathers tend to pick up different behaviours of parenting based on the sex of their child”(Putnam & Myers, 2014). “According to Stephen (2014) Studies have shown that “fathers can affect their daughters' emotional adjustment more through the style of parenting they demonstrate rather than through
Usually corporal punishment is identified with the authoritative style and positive discipline with the authoritarian style. Research has suggested that parenting strategies might be culturally specific in their relation to child behavior problems. Socioeconomic status has also been found to affect child-rearing practices and poverty can cause strained parental-child relations which causes parents to be less nurturing. When negative behaviors have been identified behavioral family interventions, which apply social learning principles, have been suggested as a means of helping children with conduct problems. Four Styles of Child Rearing Permissive parents "are more responsive than they are demanding.
Authoritarian parents are more likely to discipline their children. Children of authoritarian parents don’t often get into trouble, however, if a child does something wrong, they are less likely to tell their parents about it. This is because they have been taught to fear the consequences. In some populations, children from authoritarian families suffer from emotional problems. It is believed that “children of authoritarian parents develop self-guilt and self-hatred that could lead to low self-esteem” (Truesdale).
McRoy, R., Grotevant, H., Furuta, A., & Lopez, S. (1990). Adoption Revelation and Communication Issues: Implications for Practice. Families in Society, 71, 550-557. Wegar, K. (1995). Adoption and Mental Health: A Theoretical Critique of the Psychopathological Model.
(1990). Retrieved from http://parenting.adoption.com/parents/adoption-and-the-stages-of-development.html 4. Juffer, F., Stams, G. M., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2004). Adopted Children's Problem Behavior Is Significantly Related to Their Ego Resiliency, Ego Control, and Sociometric Status. Journal Of Child Psychology And Psychiatry, 45(4), 697-706.
They are nurturing and very open with their child (Baumrind, 1991). Lastly, neglectful parenting style is those parents who have both low demandingness and responsiveness towards their children. These parents are generally detached from their child’s life and in some cases; they may even reject or neglect their child’s needs (Maccoby & Martin,
Tuma, J. M. (1989). Mental health services for children: The state of the art. American Psychologist, 44(2), 188. World Health Organization. Child Mental Health http://www.who.int/mental_health/maternal-child/en/ http://www.ncsl.org/research/health/mental-health-benefits-state-mandates.aspx Yoshikawa, H., Aber, J. L., & Beardslee, W. R. (2012).