Paper On MAPK Pathway

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MAPK Pathway
The MAPK pathway is one of the well studied pathways which connect different types of membrane receptors when there is mitogenic differentiation or stimulation. This pathway is involved in cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis and migration. Regulation of migration is crucial in various instances such as the embryonic cell layer movement during development, wound healing, inflammation etc. While unregulated migration is the hallmark of tumor invasion. Cells will migrate towards the direction of chemical signals like epidermal growth factor, keratin growth factor, insulin like growth factor etc (van Golen et al., 2002). This will lead to the activation of different pathways, but the precise pathways for each molecule are not well understood. The inhibitor studies done by Kaladhar B Reddy et al provides new insights to a mechanism by which cancer cell progression can happen by the activation of MAPK in MDA MB 231 and MCF 7 cell lines. Their study proves that the prolonged MAPK (MEK) activation can regulate cell migration in human breast cancer cell lines when they stimulated them using TGF-α(Krueger et al., 2001).They also shows that the MAPK activation is critical for the cell migration in ER-negative cells and the duration of migration correlates with the duration of MAPK activation. Another study done by Thomas Pento et al also suggests that the KGF induced breast cancer cell motility depends on another MAPK protein ERK1/2(Zang et al., 2004). Work done by Harold L Moses et al provides data for MAPK activation (ERK) in response to TGF β as well (FIG 3) (Giampieri et al., 2009; Xie et al., 2004)
AKT Pathway
Activation of AKT pathway is also crucial in breast cancer progression. Activation of Akt in breast canc...

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...cancer development: epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer development. Breast Cancer Res. 5:101-6.
Xie, L., B.K. Law, A.M. Chytil, K.A. Brown, M.E. Aakre, and H.L. Moses. 2004. Activation of the Erk pathway is required for TGF-beta1-induced EMT in vitro. Neoplasia. 6:603-10.
Yoeli-Lerner, M., G.K. Yiu, I. Rabinovitz, P. Erhardt, S. Jauliac, and A. Toker. 2005. Akt blocks breast cancer cell motility and invasion through the transcription factor NFAT. Mol Cell. 20:539-50.
Zang, X.P., D.R. Siwak, T.X. Nguyen, A.M. Tari, and J.T. Pento. 2004. KGF-induced motility of breast cancer cells is dependent on Grb2 and Erk1,2. Clin Exp Metastasis. 21:437-43.
Zhang, G., B. He, and G.F. Weber. 2003. Growth factor signaling induces metastasis genes in transformed cells: molecular connection between Akt kinase and osteopontin in breast cancer. Mol Cell Biol. 23:6507-19.
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