30. Singh D, Joshi DD, Hameed M, Qian J, Gascon P, Maloof PB, et al. Increased expression of preprotachykinin-I and neurokinin receptors in human breast cancer cells: implications for bone marrow metastasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97(1):388-93.
26. Ke J, Wu X, Wu X, He X, Lian L, Zou Y, et al. A subpopulation of CD24(+) cells in colon cancer cell lines possess stem cell characteristics. Neoplasma. 2012;59(3):282-8.
Breast cancer is a malignant tumor that develops in cells of the breast. Maligna... ... middle of paper ... ...ring breast cancer. Internationalo Journal of Breast Cancer. Mohammad Al-Hajj, M. S.-H. (2002). Prospective Identification of tumorigenic Breast Cancer Cells.
Cytogenet 1999(109): 91-98. Merajver, S.D., Frank, T.S., Xu, J, et. al. Germline BRCA1 mutations and loss of the wild-type allele in tumors from families with early onset breast and ovarian cancer. Clin.
9. Hwu, P. Et al. 1993. Functional and Molecular Characterization of Tumor-infiltrating Lymphocytes Transduced with Tumor Necrosis Factor-r cDNA for the Gene Therapy of Cancer in Humans. J. Immunol.
However, the activation of this MAP kinase cascade requires a scaffold protein, IQGAP1, which is capable of interacting to form a complex with them. Also IQGAP1 is part of the GTPase family that acts stimulating the GTPase activity of G proteins and switching off its activity by changing GTP to GDP. EGF receptors are found attached to the cell surface, and they are associated with normal cell growth and oncogenesis. EGFRvIII has the ability to enhance the tumorigenicity behaviour of a cell, stimulating its proliferation and angiogenesis 2. The cell migration process requires a few steps, such as cell proliferation and angiogenesis.
[Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]. 2007 Jan;13(1):62-9. 35. Bu G, Lu W, Liu CC, Selander K, Yoneda T, Hall C, et al. Breast cancer-derived Dickkopf1 inhibits osteoblast differentiation and osteoprotegerin expression: implication for breast cancer osteolytic bone metastases.
Impaired cell death is a characteristic of cancer cells, determining their resistance to apoptotic signals, (Adams and Cory 2007, Hartman and Czyz 2013) which is one of the six essential alterations in cell biological capabilities acquired during the multistep development of human tumours (Hanahan and Weinberg 2011, Hartman and Czyz 2013) and remains critical in effective cancer treatment strategies (Adams and Cory 2007). Two major apoptotic paths have been defined; death receptor (extrinsic) and mitochondrial (intrinsic) pathway and they are usually switched on in a stimulus-dependent manner (Steel, Doherty et al. 2004, Adams and Cory 2007, Hartman and Czyz 2013).Such that extra-cellular death inducing signals via Fas receptors and various intra cellular signals result in activation of caspases (Du, Fang et al. 2000) (caspase 8 and 9) respectively. Intrinsic apoptotic pathway is widely implicated as a barrier to cancer pathogenesis than extrinsic apoptosis pathway (Hanahan and Weinberg 2011).
Silini, A., et al., Regulator of G-protein signaling 5 (RGS5) protein: a novel marker of cancer vasculature elicited and sustained by the tumor's proangiogenic microenvironment. Cell Mol Life Sci, 2012. 69(7): p. 1167-78.
Linley AJ, Mathieu MG, Miles AK, Rees RC, McArdle SE, Regad T. (2012). The helicase HAGE expressed by malignant melanoma-initiating cells is required for tumor cell proliferation In Vivo. The journal of biological chemistry. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M111.308973. 6.