Paper 4

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The chapter starts by explaining many of Sigmund Freud’s theories. One that is discussed is the controversial Oedipus and Elektra complexes. I always find that there is a missing element to his theory, which does not take into account the inborn sexual preference of a child. Since we now know that heterosexuality or homosexuality is largely inborn biologically in an infant and accounts for at least the majority of their sexual expression (nurture is certainly involved as well), how would homosexuality theoretically affect the normal course of this theory? Freud thought that the way a child resolves their complex (whichever one applies to them) greatly affects their later identity as a hetero- or homosexual, and not that their inborn sexual preferences affect how they manifest the complex – but, with the information we now have, this seems obviously false. I have mixed feelings about many of Freud’s theories, though most of them seem to intuitively make sense, even if they are unfalsifiable. Further, neo-Freudians like Jung who built on Freud’s ideas (as well as Freud himself) basically built the entire foundation of counseling as we know it, which has helped millions upon millions of people to live better, happier, more productive, and more fulfilling lives. This has been indispensable to humanity as a whole. So, it is really only the Oedipus and Elektra complexes that seem very suspect to me, and I do find it pretty disappointing that Freud’s instance on sexuality playing the major role in an individual’s personality and behavior tends to overshadow some of his other, more relevant and nuanced, theories. I’ve taken the MMPI-2 in a non-clinical setting, as well as various “unofficial” MBTI inventories, and found them very ... ... middle of paper ... ... confirms what the chapter says about how we might develop positive or negative feelings about others just because of what happens while we are around them. And though the situation was stressful, my coworker did have my back and didn’t let the customer continue to yell at and lie about me. The concept of prejudice and discrimination is discussed later in the chapter. I grew up in South Florida, and although there is racism everywhere, I was not exposed to extreme amounts of it. When I was 15, I moved to Louisiana, and was quite shocked at the amount of discrimination and racist attitudes held by my neighbors. Further, people were even proud of their racism, and loved talking about it. It was quite a shock to me, and something I never did get used to. I was very happy when I returned to the more mixed and tolerant population of South Florida a few years later.

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