The second or bottom number is diastolic pressure. This measures the pressure of the arteries when the heart is resting and refilling with blood (American). These measurements help gauge healthy pressure levels, and normal blood pressure falls anywhere below 120/80. The more pressure in the arteries, the harder the heart has to work, and higher risks for serious health problems may occur. This can sound like an exaggeration of probable health problems, but considering that one in three American adults has high blood pressure, there are millions of people at... ... middle of paper ... ...bMD, 27 Aug. 2013.
Without the proper treatment, many hypertensive patients may face devastating complications, including myocardial infarction, kidney failure, and blindness. Hypertension affects approximately 73 million Americans. It is a chronic medical condition in which the blood pressure is elevated. Hypertension, also called high blood pressure is often seen concurrent with diabetes mellitus. Many refer to hypertension as the “silent killer” because often time’s individuals are Asymptomatic.
In another cross-sectional study enrolling a total 135 normotensive patients with type 2 diabetes, the prevalence of MHT was reported as 30% . Based on the current literature, MHT prevalence was higher in type 2 DM subjects and is correlated with target organ damage relative to normotensive diabetics. Therefore, these subjects may have an increased risk of cardiovascular events. However, the value of cardiovascular risk markers to determine MHT has not been well studied. ADMA has been shown to inhib... ... middle of paper ... ...levated ADMA levels are associated with endothelial dysfunction in patients with DM .
Antiarrhythmic drugs, implantable defibrillators, and pacemakers are other treatments used for dilated cardiomyopathy patients. Anticoagulants are also an important treatment for dilated cardiomyopathy patients due to the increased risk of developing thrombus from poor systolic function, atrial fibrillation, and poor circulatory flow. Cardiac transplantation is another treatment option but heart donors are very limited (Lily). Dilated cardiomyopathy accounts for approximately 15% of heart failure cases in the under 75s (“Chronic Heart Failure”). Patients with Dilated cardiomyopathy are usually unaware of the disease until they experience the signs and symptoms of heart failure or they develop an arrhythmia.
DEVELOPMENT OF AN EASY, SAFE AND EFFECTIVE METHOD TO IDENTIFY DRUG INCOMPATIBILITIES INTRODUCTION Drug therapy is a complex process with innumerable parameters modulating its success and safety. The most vulnerable patients at risk of increased drug errors are those who require intensive care treatment. In such patients, multiple co-morbidity and multiorgan failure are frequent, with increasing mortality rate, oral drug treatment is often impossible in the initial phase of ICU admission. Making parenteral drug administration unavoidable. Parenteral drug administration is a standard that is often complicated by the fact that the number of concurrently administered drugs exceeds the number of available infusion lines, this potentiates drugs being administered through the same lumen/ line (Y- site administration), thus introducing another risk factor known as drug incompatibility (Thilo, 2008).
In diabetic patient the major reason of inability and death is the vascular disease mainly atherosclerosis. Diabetes elevates the risk of generating coronary, cerebrovascular and peripheral disease. The alteration in the endothelial wall, vascular smooth muscles and functionally active platelets all lead to the pathophysiology progressing to vascular disease. The key factors that are the risk factor for the pathogenesis of vascular complication are elevated blood glucose levels, glucose intolerance, elevated lipid profile and hypertension. Deliberating various long term and threatening diabetic... ... middle of paper ... ...vel also found elevated in the diabetic individuals as compare to the non diabetic individuals.
Plaque build-up in the arteries because of many factors such as nutrition, lack of physical activity, and or being overweight or obese. Other factors that are found to cause hypertension are stress, race/ ethnicity, age, alcohol, smoking and genetics (Understanding Yours Risks for High Blood Pressure, 2011). Topics such as race/ethnicity, age, and genetics cause high blood pressure and these are factors in your life that you cannot fully control because if you are grouped in a certain area you are automatically put at higher risks than others. Smoking, alcohol and stress on the other hand are factors that can be easily manipulated and if they are dealt with in the correct way ... ... middle of paper ... ...art Association. Retrieved November 21, 2011, from www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HighBloodPressure/UnderstandYourRiskforHighBloodPressure/Understand-Your-Risk-for-High-Blood-Pressure_UCM_002052_Article.jsp#.TsgtfLKgmuI Weder, A.
Although coronary heart disease is very common among the elderly, it is often undiagnosed or misdiagnosed in this age group due to difference in clinical manifestations (Aronow, 2013). Failure to recognize early signs and symptoms of coronary heart disease can lead to heart attack that increase numbers of deaths (Rao & Thanikachalam, 2005). To promote older people well being and prevent CHD complication, there is the need to create awareness of health risks associated with CHD, its causes and lifestyle changes (Health Pro... ... middle of paper ... ...t groups or organizations that are available for the elderly to seek help depending on their special needs. Healthy diet pyramid will be used as a guide to describe the variety of food. An information section will be given with short videos in between and followed by dietary practices questionnaire on food consumptions.
‘More than 300,000 people in the UAE have diabetes but do not know that they have the condition’ (Bell, 2013). Undiagnosed diabetes can cause many serious problems such as, cardiovascular diseases, kidney deterioration, leg amputation and blindness (Bell, 2013). Hypertension is another health problem that can be caused by diabetes. Patients who have diabetes are susceptible to hypertension more than others. The high blood pressure affects the function of the heart and vessels, which makes it a major factor of the cardiovascular diseases.
According to findings of previous studies, ESRD is one of the states that increase pro-inflammatory cytokines and in some of them interleukins (IL) 1, 4 and 6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) were 8-10 times higher than general population (6). Statine agents can reduce serum level of CRP in HD patients and decline their need to Epoetin for management of anemia (7). Serum CRP level more than 5-10 mg/l is associated with cardiovascular events and statine agents due to reduce CRP level might decline mortality of HD patients and improve their cardiovascular outcome. Measurement of Serum level of C reactive protein (CRP) in hemodialysis (HD) patients with anemia and their response to lovastatin is aim of our study. Material and methods One hundred fifty hemodialysis patients in Imam Khomeini and Amiralam hospital during 2004 were participated in our randomized clinical trial.