PED Nexus

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1. Introduction The Niger Delta of Nigeria is the home of over 31 million people according to the CIA Fact book. The delta is a mineral rich area with a particularly high amount of fame because of its vast oil reserves. The consequences of the rich oil reserves in the Niger Delta communities and environment have been massive. “Local indigenous people have seen little if any improvement in their standard of living while suffering serious damage to their natural environment.” (Hogan, 2013) This paper will use the Population, Environment and Development (PED) Nexus to illustrate the relationship among population growth, environmental degradation and development. The Niger Delta will be used as the case study to describe the connection. The paper will first describe the individual pillars separately to give a clear view of the trends and issues surrounding each phenomenon and then will later, illustrate the connection between the three pillars and explain how each is dependent or related to the other. To conclude, the paper will give a description of the outcomes that are a result of the interaction amongst the three pillars of the PED Nexus. 2. Population Figure 1: Nigeria Population Pyramid 2013 Source: CIA World Factbook In 2006 Nigerian National Population Census indicated that Nigeria had a population of one hundred and forty million, three thousand five hundred and forty two (140,003,542) (National Bureau of Statistics, 2009). According to the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) Nigeria Country Office, in 2013, “Nigeria has a population of 144 million and an annual population growth rate of 3.2 per cent.” This number is expected to increase by double the amount in less than twenty-two years. There are thirty-six states, o... ... middle of paper ... ...facilitation of the physical processes that brought the interaction of the ecosystems seized to exist. Instead the Niger Delta is left with a toxic environment harmful to humans, animals and plants. According to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Environmental Assessment of Ogoniland, restoration of the Niger Delta is possible but may take between 25 to 30 years and one billion dollars in costs. 4. Development Figure 5: Human Settlement in the Bodo Creek Photograph Accreditation: National Geographic, Ed Kashi Nigeria is among the fifteen poorest countries in the world and 70% of its people live below the poverty line. (UNDP, Niger Delta Development Report, 2006) Life expectancy is only 51.2 despite large oil reserves and other important lucrative minerals. In the Delta region, UNDP states that, less than 30% of the people have access to safe water

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