West Nile Virus presents a near never-ending problem for the United States because of its similarities to other arboviral disease and its ability to transmit quickly. Now that it has been fourteen years since the virus was identified in New York, according to the CDC’s report “West Nile Virus Disease And Other Arboviral Diseases-United States, 2011,” WNV has become the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral diseases in the United States, an arboviral disease, which can also be called an arthropodborne disease, is a disease that is transmitted by an arthropod vector. The main vector of West Nile virus is the mosquito, other arthropods such as the tick and fleas may also carry the disease but this is less likely. There is not one specific species of mosquitoes that is capable of being the host of the disease, almost all species of mosquitoes can be the host of the disease. Since mosquito populations are more prevalent in hot and moist climates, it is then safe to assume the both temperature and rainfall an effec... ... middle of paper ... ... Works, United States Senate, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session, to Conduct Oversight of the State and Federal Response to the 1999 Outbreak of the West Nile Virus in Connecticut and New York, December 14, 1999, Fairfield Ct. Washington: U.S. G.P.O, 2000.
For approximately three-thousand years, smallpox has ravaged and plagued the four corners of the globe. In fact, in the 17 th and 18 th centuries, it was claimed to be the most infectious disease in the West, with an astounding 90% mortality rate in America. It wasn't until 1796, with English surgeon Edward Jenner's smallpox vaccination, that the world saw relief from this devastating virus. However, even with this inoculation in use, the world continued to witness death from both the virus and the vaccine. In the year 1966, it was estimated that 10-15 million infected citizens world wide had passed away from smallpox that year alone ( “History” 12).
In Fort Collins, Co there were 63 cases and 9 fatalities during this time, most residents affected lived within the large city of Fort Collins and Loveland, these cities are very similar in makeup and characteristics that led to the largest number of cases within them (Gujral, 2007). Moving into 2004 there were 271 human mosquito disease cases with 3 fatalities on record. These cases occurred throughout Colorado, with an emphasis on the western slopes. A significant amount of human mosquito cases continue to show up, West Nile Virus had become a well-known and wide spread epidemic by this time. Diagnosis After these large numbers of WNV cases swept across Fort Collins, the diagnosis led to development of programs to help prevent West Nile Virus.
There are two types of HIV virus; which are HIV-1 and HIV-2 and both of these types may have come from different types of SIV strands. These days, there are more known cases of HIV-1 than H1V-2. This virus was discovered in the United States during the mid- 1970’s and became an epidemic not only in the United States, but worldwide. “The World Health Organization site has emphasized that there were approximately 32.2–38.8 million people living with HIV in 2012. Sub-Saharan Africa is the most affected region, with nearly 1 in every 20 adults living with HIV.
The Spanish flu was different from the seasonal flu in one especially frightening way, there was an unusually high death rate among healthy adults aged 15 to 34 and lowered the life expectancy by more than ten years. Such a high death rate has not occurred in this age group in and epidemic prior to or since the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918. (Tumpey, 2005) The disease gets its name not from the country where it first appeared but from the country where it was first widely reported. The Spanish were not involved in World War One. They were not censoring their newsprint as heavily as those in countries involved in the war.
Many people do not develop any symptoms or any health problems at the beginning, in most cases the body’s immune system gets rid of the virus in two years. Although there is no way to know who will develop health problems. Some cases will develop genital warts in both males and females, the warts can also appear in the mouth, throat, anus, fingers, nails and cervix. Other types of HPV may cause the cells in the body to turn abnormal, which might lead to cervical cancer overtime if left untreated. The types of HPV that causes genital warts are not the same as the ones that can cause cancer.
Malarial infections are an ongoing epidemic that millions contract globally. According to the recently published World Malaria Report by the World Health Organization (2013), during the year 2012, the number of known cases totaled 207 million with about 627,000 deaths. This number, fortunately, is decreasing over the years due to numerous interventions and education in endemic regions. The life cycle of the Plasmodium parasites has been understood for years; however, recent studies have shown that some individuals are more susceptible to infections while others are more resistant. Plasmodium falciparum, the leading cause of the most severe cases of malaria, has been the topic of these studies.
Its geographical distribution is intrinsically attached to the range and habitat of its principal vector mosquitoes (Figure 1.5). Dengue infections are reported in more than hundreds of tropical and sub-tropical countries worldwide, mostly in urban and semi-urban areas where the vectors for dengue virus are commonly found. Dengue is hyper-endemic in many of these urban cores with co-circulation of multiple dengue virus serotypes. In non-tropical regions, dengue is usually spread by the international travellers that have visited dengue-endemic areas (Malavige GN et al.,2004).
India, being a malaria endemic zone, confronts this protozoan disease perennially. India’s wide-spread geography, ecological diversity and climatic variability make it an ideal place for malaria parasites and their vectors to sustain. The disease which was earlier confined only to rural areas has now taken different forms like urban, industrial, plains and forest malaria, thereby increasing national burden. Currently, about 95% of the 1.21 billion population of India is at risk of malarial infection [6, 7]. An estimated 1.5 million cases and 1000 deaths are attributed to malaria annually in this region[6, 8].
West Nile Virus has emerged in recent years throughout the temporate zones of Europe and North America. Causing a variety of conditions in its hosts, the most serious manifestation of WN virus infection is fatal encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) in humans and horses, and many birds. History While many forms of encephalitis exist, West Nile Virus was first isolated and identified in the West Nile District of Uganda in 1937. The virus, which was seemingly isolated to North Eastern Africa, became recognized as a cause of severe human meningoencephalitis (inflammation of the spinal cord and brain) in elderly patients during an outbreak in Israel in 1957. In addition to the human victims of this disease, the virus was found Egypt and France during 1960s to have fatal effects within horses.