Outline and evaluate two explanations of attachment John Bowlby argued that attachment is a biological need

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Outline and evaluate two explanations of attachment John Bowlby argued that attachment is a biological need to attach to our caregiver. This attachment is innate and we have evolved in this way to maximise protection, as forming this attachment has survival value – staying close to the mother or primary care giver (PCG) ensures food and protection from danger. This one special attachment that a baby has with his/her PCG is called monotropy, which gives us a template, or internal working model for all future attachments and relationships. This is because we learn how to care for and trust others through this first special attachment. It also acts as a safe base for the infant, where they trust that the mother will be there and so can then be more independent and play, giving them confidence to explore their environment. The first 3-5 years are seen to be by Bowlby, the critical period. This attachment must develop by this critical period, otherwise it never will and the child’s internal working model will then for future references have less trust and may not be able to care for others in the same way. Bowlby said that if the attachment is not formed or is broken, this may seriously damage the child’s social and emotional development. However, this explanation is not supported by Shaffer and Emerson, as they found that a stage in the child’s development is multiple attachments, and if these may be formed, monotropy would not exist. Also, attachments are important in development, but lack of attachment or a broken attachment may not have the severe consequences that Bowlby claimed. Another explanation into attachment is the psychodynamic theory. Freud claimed that during infancy the id is in control of the baby’s actions and the biological needs such as feeding or sleeping are priority at this stage in development. The model suggests that the baby cries when it is hungry, and because the mother feeds it this will give the baby pleasure as the need is removed. Therefore, the baby will make a link

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