An overwhelming majority of African nations has reclaimed their independence from their European mother countries. This did not stop the Europeans from leaving a permanent mark on the continent however. European colonialism has shaped modern-day Africa, a considerable amount for the worse, but also some for the better. Including these positive and negative effects, colonialism has also touched much of Africa’s history and culture especially in recent years. In order to properly understand the effects of colonization, one must look at its history.
Some scientists believe in the hypothesis known as the Multiregional Theory. This theory states that Homo erectus left Africa about two million years ago and from there migrated to Europe and Asia. These H. erectus then evolved, simultaneously, into Homo sapiens, or the modern looking and culturally evolved humans we are today. Another hypothesis that has been presented is the Uniregional Theory. This theory states that although Homo erectus did migrate out of Africa into these areas, Homo erectus evolved into Homo sapiens in, and solely in Africa.
It suggests that modern humans are the product of speciation during the late Pleistocene in Africa. Homo sapiens eventually migrated out of Africa to Eurasia, and replaced all other human populations, without interbreeding. Some of the replaced populations are believe to be the Neanderthals and the Homo erectus. The second theory proposes that modern human evolution happened trough emigration, this is known as the multiregional evolution model. This model assumes that modern humans have an ancient rather than a recent African origin.
Then transition from H. erectus to H. sapiens occurred about 400,000 years ago, and the dispute is over the place of origin of modern humans. "There is considerable controversy among scientists as to whether the transition to H. sapiens took place only in Africa, or the evolution of modern humans occurred simultaneously on three continents" (Purves 515). With little information that we have now, a strong, clear hypothesis with support is lacking. But these newly recovered fosiils and tools in Renzidong may change things around. The "out of Africa" hypothesis suggests a single origin in Africa followed by several dispersal’s.
The English version comes from the Latin word “Africanus’. Back in the ancient Africa they found a hominid subfamily. There was only one thing surviving is was called the Homo sapien. Researchers found evidence that there were modern human like species that once lived in Africa. The species for which humans belong to are called Australopithecines.
They argue that early modern humans show some traits consistent with a ... ... middle of paper ... ...iation in modern human populations suggests that our origins may reflect a relatively small founding population for Homo sapiens. Analysis of mtDNA (Rogers and Harpending 1992) supports the view that a small population of Homo sapiens, numbering perhaps only 10,000 to 50,000 people, left Africa somewhere between 50,000 and 100,000 years ago. There is another similarity between human populations standing in strong contrast to the condition seen in our closest living relatives, the chimpanzees. In fact, there is significantly more genetic variation between two individual chimpanzees drawn from the same population than there is between two humans drawn randomly from a single population. Furthermore, genetic variation between populations of chimpanzees is enormously greater than differences between European, Asian and African human populations (Cavalli-Sforza, 2000).
Differences are measured using a point of similarity as a benchmark. There is an underlying assumption that theses points of similarity are in fact similar genetically. Positional analysis reveals that many o... ... middle of paper ... ...o accommodate brain growth. The first fossil hominid material to be discovered that of Neanderthal man, attracted even more controversy than the later discoveries of Australopithecus africanus and Homo erectus. The recent found provides good evidence that the earliest known recognizably modern humans lived in Africa.
(Very original I know) Anthropologists have found footprints and even skulls dating back to 5 million years ago that would prove that Homo sapiens are from Africa. Many scientists argue Homo sapiens did in fact not come from Africa, but instead The Multiregional Hypothesis. The Multiregional Hypothesis argues that our earliest hominid ancestors radiated out from Africa and Homo sapiens evolved from several different groups of Homo erectus in several places throughout the world (K. Kris Hirst.) Humans began to occupy many different places in Africa with new climates such as forests and deserts (Strayer, Page 13). Homo sapiens were never technologically advanced until they started to inhabit different places that made them change their ways and starting inventing tools to help them with wild animals.
Consequently, Kushites briefly became the dominant power in Africa. Quite often scholars argued that the Egyptians of the Pharaonic Age were not black. This is an argument that the author argues "as little tenable as saying Serbers and Ethiopians weren't Negro" (25,26). My opinion is that scholars would not care if the Egyptians were black if they weren't such an important civilization. Africa produced many significant civilizations such as the Egyptian, Songhay, Mali and Ethiopian but would see the fruits of labor manipulated and tortured during the Atlantic slave trade.
First, one must understand what this theory really is. The Out of Africa model, also known as the replacement theory, states that modern humans originated in Africa exclusively and then slowly migrated to the rest of the world. This has been suggested to have happened, probably in two separate waves, somewhere between 56,000 and 200,000 years ago. This theory holds that while there were other hominids on other continents, they never evo...