One of the major rivalries was certainly between France and Germany. This was originally brought about by the war between them in 1870 where the newly unified Germany took Alsace Loraine from the French. Germany also had a rivalry with another third of the Entente, Russia. Germany had created the Schlieffen Plan to initiate if Russia were to mobilise, meaning both France and Russia would be attacked by Germany, thus breaking the encirclement, which they originally had. Serbia and Austria-Hungary also had the incredibly strong rivalry and this was proven by the assassination... ... middle of paper ... ...n powers were not going to take oppositions to their alliance decisions very lightly.
Allied Powers Fance has not forgotton its humiliating defeat at the hands of Germany in 1871. France was waiting for the chance to reestablish its power on the continent. France was willing to ally itself with another longtime enemy, Britain, to strenghten its hand against Germany. Great Britain had traditionally followed a policy of neutrality, which served it well. Yet some Britains were now calling for a new alliances, to counter the rising power of the German Empire.
It is his belief that since Austria was Germany’s only dependable ally, they were dragged into the war. Furthermore, he explains that Germany’s geographical location, being in the middle of the conflict between France and Russia, they had little choice in the matter and had to defend their territory as well as Austria-Hungary’s. Fay’s fourth country and major power discussed, was Russia. He believed that Russia supported Serbia because of the frequent guidance and encouragement given at Belgrade, and if a war were to break out they would more than happy to fight along with the belief of France and Britain helping out. Furthermore, at the same ... ... middle of paper ... ...to win this continental war, if it was to come to that.
‘The pattern of alliances and agreements formed in Europe in the years 1879-1907 was shaped primarily by Germany’s concerns about its security.’ How far do you agree with this opinion? The alliances formed from 1879 to 1907 were primarily due to the security concerns of Germany, this is shown by German attempts to isolate France to prevent them from taking revenge for the Franco-Prussian war by trying to court Russia into an a permanent alliance with it and Austria and trying to prevent conflict between Austria and Russia. They also tried to not antagonize Britain and thus focus on Europe but this changed after Kaiser Wilhelm II fired Bismarck and enacted Weltpolitik. However, there are other factors in the formation of the patterns and alliances
He also used Garibaldi’s Red Shirts to gain territory without using his own military. Bismarck made alliances with countries for wars to help unify his country also. After Prussia and Austria joined forces to defeat Denmark, he convinced that Austria must be eliminated from German affairs. After provoking a war between the two, the Austro-Prussian War, he offered Austria generous peace terms and successfully rid himself of Austria interfering with him. Bismarck may not have directly betrayed anyone, but he definitely manipulated many people skillfully.
The king owned Bismarck a 'favour´ as Bismarck had solved the king´s constitutional crisis. Bismarck played a crucial part in the unification of Germany as he helped to set up the Northern German Confederation after defeating Austria in the second of three wars. The first war was a bit 'weird´ as Bismarck´s goal was to get Austria out of Germany but it was the start of a long plan, he teamed up with Austria and together they quickly defeated the Danish. The duchies of Holstein were to be controlled by Austria and the duchies of Schleswig were to be controlled by Prussia. This was to be a major decision to let Austria control Holstein.
By the convention of Gastein in 1865, Prussia took Schleswig and Austria took Holstein. This gave Bismark the chance to pick a quarrel with Austria whenever he saw the need. It has been argued that Bismark did not deliberately set out for war with Denmark, but cleverly took advantage of the situation. Bismark's next war was against Austria, seeming more planned. In 1866 he provoked war by proposing that the German confederation should be dissolved and a new one set up excluding Austria.
One of the most important alliances of the many that were made was, the Dreikaiserbund or the League of the the Three Emperors singed in 1872 between Germany, Russia and Austria-Hungary. The most important of the articles in the treaty was that ^in case on of the High Contracting Parties should find itself at war with a fourth Great Power, the two other shall maintain towards it a benevolent neutrality and shall devote their efforts to the localisation of the conflict^. But Russia and Austria-Hungary drew suspicious of each other over conflicts in the Balkans in 1887 and the League fell apart. So to replace that lose Bismarck drew up the secret Dual Alliance with Austria in 1879, it was a defensive alliance against Russian in case she attacks Austria. In 1882, Italy joined the Dual Alliance which created the Triple Alliance.
The agreement was that if a third power went to war on Germany, Russia would remain neutral, and vice versa. This treaty did not contravene with the Dual Alliance and was seen to be a masterpiece of Bismarck's diplomatic juggling. Finally, Bismarck secured peace in the Balkans and between the European powers by publishing the Dual Alliance in February 1888. This threatened Russia Germany would side Austria if war was to come about. This along with rumours of the Mediterranean Agreement persuaded Russia to leave the Balkans alone.
Causes of the Franco-Russian Alliance During the late 19th century many countries sought an alliance with other countries to guarantee their own safety, preserve peace and sometimes to help their economic position. this is highlighted by alliances and treaties such as the "Dual Alliance" of 1879, the "Dreikaiserbund" of 1881 and the "Reinsurance Treaty" This was also the case for both France and Russia, with them agreeing the "Franco-Russian Military Convention" on August 18th 1892 and later agreeing the "Franco-Russian Alliance" in 1893. France and Russia were animated by a common desire to preserve peace. The only reason it was possible for France and Russia to form this alliance is because Germany allowed the Reinsurance treaty to become invalid. Both countries wanted different things from the alliance but there was one common reason between them, and that was to oppose Germany - although both countries had different incentives for this.