Osteoporosis Case Study

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The conditions that contribute to osteoporosis are diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, malabsorption syndrome, hyperthyroidism, hypogonadism, primary hyperparathyroidism, kidney disorders, liver disease, sickle cell anemia, and lupus (Weber & Kelley, 2014). Osteoporosis is more prevalent in women who are greater than age 50 and menopausal due to increased bone resorption and decreased calcium absorption (Weber & Kelley, 2014). There are also several modifiable and unmodifiable risk factors for developing osteoporosis (Weber & Kelley, 2014). A decrease in calcium and vitamin D consumption and absorption, decrease in estrogen levels resulting from menopause or hysterectomy, long-term use of corticosteroids, alcohol and caffeine consumption, and tobacco use are some of the risk factors (Weber & Kelley, 2014). Additional risk factors are a positive family history of osteoporosis or arthritis, personal history of fractures,…show more content…
The bone mineral density test, known as the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), is a non-invasive screening tool that should be done early, before age 60 on women who have positive risk factors (Weber & Kelley, 2014). The one-minute osteoporosis risk test and the fracture risk assessment are screening tools that can also be completed and discussed with the physician (Weber & Kelley, 2014). Other screening tools available are plain x-rays, quantitative computed tomography, ultrasounds, and hip T-score measurements (Stagi, Cavalli, Cavalli, de Martino, & Brandi, 2016). Screening for hyperparathyroidism, hyperthyroidism, hypercalcemia, hypocalcemia, and liver disorders involve laboratory testing such as serum total calcium, albumin, phosphates, liver function test, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and 25-hyroxyvitamin D (Lee & Vasikaran,

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