Organisms And Microorganisms In Bacteria

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 INTRODUCTION: Bacteria play a very decisive role of silently getting the nature purge of the dead matter through the disintegration of dead organic matter by the microbes. They use them as a foundation of nutrients, and in turn help in recycling the organic compounds trapped in the dead matter. Through this process, other organisms also get profited, who can use the simpler forms of organic compounds/nutrients released from the dead matter by various bacteria. Figure 1: Decomposition of organic matter by Bacteria (Image source: http://www.teachoceanscience.net) Microorganisms are lifeforms that are small enough to be microscopic. In other words, they require a microscope to be seen. Examples of types of microorganisms include bacteria, protozoa, viruses, and fungi.  ROLE IN ECOSYSTEM: For an ecosystem to work effectively, it has to have many organisms working together in a constant cycle. Microorganisms exists in huge numbers and have a crucial stand in this cycle. The several vital roles they play are: decomposition, oxygen production, evolution, and symbiotic relationships. 1. Importance of microbes in Soil: Soil dwell diverse group of living organisms, both micro flora (fungi, bacteria, algae and actinomycetes) and micro-fauna (protozoa, nematodes, earthworms, moles, ants). Soil fauna & flora transfigure complex organic nutrients into simpler inorganic forms which are readily engaged by the plant for growth. Further, they harvest variety of substances like IAA (Indole-3-acetic acid), gibberellins, and antibiotics etc. which directly or indirectly encourage the plant growth. Also, cells and mycelial strands of fungi and actinomycetes, Vormicasts from earthworm plays important role in soil aggregation. Different s... ... middle of paper ... ...ms, e.g., atmospheric nitrogen can be built up directly into the protoplasm by the bacteria of the genus Azobacter (Azo = nitrogen), the genus Clostridium and other microorganisms. These useful microorganisms are plenty in all the fertile soils. Therefore, a farmer authorities the Azobaceter, Clostridium and other microorganisms to accumulate nitrogen from the air by allowing a field to lie unseeded or unplanted. Nitrogen of the commercial fertilizers are very costly. Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation: The knots on the roots of leguminous plants (i.e., clover, beans, peas, alfalfa) contain bacteria belonging to the genus Rhizobium. While growing together with the plants, this genus Rhizobium gathers nitrogen from the air and combines it into substances essential for the growth of both the bacteria and the plants. The process is known as symbiotic nitrogen fixation method.

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