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Oracle

Oracle- Database Management System

Data management is an extraordinarily old craft. Aristotle's scheme of interlocking classifications of knowledge in his work Physica is a data-management effort. In the early 1800s the Jacquard loom used holes punched in paper cards to represent instructions for controlling the action of a loom. These cards became the basis for Herman Hollerith’s card-sorting device, used for the 1890 U.S. census http://80-gme.grolier.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com. Many database programs were designed around the physical cards: the maximum information that could be encoded on a punch card became the length of a standard record. In 1970 Ted Codd researched and documented for IBM a “mathematically consistent and complete way of managing and retrieving information.” This research provided what is known today as “the relational model of data for large shared databanks.” http://www.oracle.com/corporate/investor_relations/news/history.htm.
To make it possible to create databases with customized menus and specialized forms, database management programs emerged. The Oracle Corporation, the second largest independent software company, was founded in 1977 by Larry Ellison, Oracle's current Chairman, President and CEO, Bob Miner (died in 1994) and Ed Oates, who currently serves as advisor for several startups. Under the original moniker, Relational Software Inc., or RSI, Ellison, Miner and Oates created the first commercial SQL (Structured Query Language) database – V2 – based entirely on published research by IBM. http://160.111.7.240/resource/tours/comphist/le1.html Oracle is one of the largest software developers and leading manufacturers of database management systems (DBMS) utilized in many if not all computer processing. What is a database? Simply stated, a database is a compilation of information that has been organized or grouped. Databases are created to control and manage organized information. Databases are usually constructed on computers, but an elaborate paper filing system is also a type of database. Examples of paper databases are encyclopedias, telephone listings, or MLA listings. DBMS allow users to create, update, and extract information from their databases (http://www.islandnet.com/~tmc/html/articles/orareln.htm). In addition to Oracle, other examples of electronic database management systems are dBase, Paradox, and IMS. Databa...

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...d in an existing database that contains other data as long as it is not the target database. http://www.nyquest.com/tutorials/rman_basics.shtml
Oracles diversified offerings, ranging from data management, applications, servers and development tools, as well as its other consulting and education services, have analysts presuming that Oracle will at some point bump Microsoft from its well-known number one software supplier position. In many corporations the question of control over databases is a bureaucratic issue, sometimes with legal implications. Someone who keeps a record of information about employees on his or her personal computer will often find that the data is legally considered part of personnel records, subject to subpoena in a grievance hearing over nonpromotion. As expert systems improve, databases will increasingly take a role as sources of information for the general public. Databases will also include multimedia "objects" such as sound and video. As databases grow in sophistication, the need for critical awareness of databases will become more important. Users will need to be able to discern which database information has come from and how reliable it is.
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