As a result, infections such as: candidiasis, cryptococcosis, pneumocystis pneumonia and aspergillosis are disseminated in these hosts. Candidiasis is commonly caused by Candida albicans- a normal oral flora in the genitourinary tract, gastrointestinal tract and on the skin. It forms bio-films on any surface, and cause mucosal and systemic infections in immunocompromised hosts disseminated as: oral thrush, vulvovaginitis, and endocarditis, among others. Although Candida albicans remains the major cause of nosocomial infections, other non albicans candida species such as: Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilosis are increasingly becoming common. According to Pfaller et al., 2007, Candida glabrata was the second most cause of invasive infections in the USA while the ARTEMIS Global Antifungal Surveillance Program revealed that Candida albicans caused the most fungal infections in the world followed by Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Candida parapsilosis respectively.
Drinking of the infected water will cause fungal infections in human. Despite through water, human diseeses are also possible through several circumtances which include exposure to aflatoxins, direct infection and allergy. Aflatoxins or mycotoxins are harmful to animals or humans (Hedayati et al, 2007). Dramatic increases in fungal diseases caused by filamentous fungi have occured since 1980s (Latģe, 1999). Studies found that the etiological structure of severe mycoses caused by fungi was changed.
“Hsp70 inhibition induces myeloma cell death via the intracellular accumulation of immunoglobulin and the generation of proteotoxic stress.” Cancer Lett339(1): 49–59. 33. Zhao, Z. G. and W. L. Shen (2005). "Heat shock protein 70 antisense oligonucleotide inhibits cell growthand induces apoptosis in human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901. "World J Gastroenterol11(1): 73-78.
Exposure to Cryptococcus neoformans leads to disease in immunocompromised patients and it can be fatal. Indeed, there is a high incidence of death in HIV patients who develop pneumonia and meningitis following infection. The administration of antifungal drugs in these cases has proven ineffective. In infected tissues, Cryptococcus neoformans reside in acidic phagosomes, which are beneficial for its replication . Cryptococcus neoformans scavenges for heme inside of its host using several methods.
Staphylococcus aureus is also associated with soft tissue infection as well as toxic shock syndrome and has been found to be the causative agent in pneumonia, boils, arthritis, meningitis and osteomyelitis. The pathogenic abilities of Staphylococcus are most commonly associated with the toxins it produces in the stationary phase of the bacterial growth curve (2). Impetigo involves an infection of the superficial, top layers, of the skin. It is characterized by the development of red blisters that start to rupture and ooze fluid. A yellowish or honey colored crust then develops.
Cellulitis: A Bacterial Skin Infection Cellulitis is a fairly common bacterial infection of the skin. Cellulitis actually means “inflammation of the cells”. This infection is usually caused by the bacteria Streptococcus or Staphylococcus. Cellulitis infection can occur in anyone, yet there are some risk factors and a more susceptible population. Cellulitis is an “opportunistic” infection which occurs through breaks in the skin.
Most communicable diseases are caused by microorganisms or larger parasites that are commonly called germs, most scientists call them pathogens. What kinds of disease are there, that are caused by organisms? -Infectious disease- caused by living organisms, can be passed by contact. -Viral disease- caused by viruses, difficult to treat because viruses are non-living -Fungal disease- usually cause mild infections, difficult to treat -Protozoan disease- the "tropical diseases" caused by protozoa -Worm infections- mostly in the tropics, worms inside body causing damage -Diseases can be caused by a wide variety of bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoans, and parasitic worms. Some sferre some disease causing organisms, and how do they affect plants?
Contents 1.1Introduction 1.2Methodology 2.0 What is a Pathogen? 2.1 Major Categories of pathogens/micro-organism 2.2 Bacteria Fig 2.3 Bacterial Shapes 2.4 Viruses Fig 2.5 Structure of a virus 2.6 Fungi 2.7 Parasites 3.0 Pathogenic Environment 4.0 What is disease? 4.1 How disease spreads 5.0 Conclusion References Pathogens and the spread of disease 1.1Introduction “Health depends on the body maintaining its internal harmony.” (The U205 Course Team, 1985) Health is a momentary condition of ones state of physical and mental well being. This is constantly compromised by the threat of disease. It is often hard to define exactly what disease is, however it is generally conceived as any undesirable bodily or mental condition which causes an organism to alter from its normal state of existence (Nesse, 2000).
In addition, its production of hemolysins and leukocidins that destroy erythrocytes and leukocytes, enterotoxin causing gastrointestinal distress, exfoliative toxin resulting in harmful peeling of the skin, and toxic shock syndrome toxin that results in systemic damage are all rather injurious to those infected. Remarkably, many healthy individuals are carriers of S. aureus and lack symptoms of disease. However, “circumstances that predispose an individual to infection ... ... middle of paper ... ...he active site and allow PBP2a to be deactivated by another β-lactam molecule has significantly impacted the development of β-lactam antibiotic treatments effective in combating MRSA. The extraordinarily relentless strain of MRSA, its capacity to consistently evade antibiotics by virtue of various mechanisms and its ever-present virulence, necessitate novel methods for devising effective antibiotics. New discoveries in antibiotic research are essential to the health of individuals and the community at large.
References 1. “Biochemistry of the cell cycle: A review”, Baserga. Cell Proliferat.1(2): 167-191. 2. “The effect of protein synthesis inhibition on the entry of messenger RNA into the cytoplasm of sea urchin embryos”, Hogan and Gross.