Operant conditioning is a process by which the subject learns due to the consequences of their actions, whether those consequences are negative or positive. The subject displays a specific type of behaviour and the reaction shown towards that behaviour, determines if they are likely to continue to display this type of behaviour, which would happen if positive reinforcement is shown, or if they are unlikely to repeat this type of behaviour, if punishment occurs. Specific tasks can also be encouraged or taught this way through the process of shaping, allowing the subject to learn tasks much more quickly and easily. This type of result was first revealed by Edward L. Thorndike (1898) when he proposed the law of effect. Studies on this topic were …show more content…
A stimulus is presented to, or removed from, the subject to either reinforce or punish the behaviour. This could be after a certain number of responses by the subject, after a certain length of time of the subject responding or it could vary between responses or length of time. If the behavioural response by the subject is desired then then the subject will be rewarded or praised, which is positive reinforcement. The subject could also have a threat removed to encourage their behaviour. This is negative reinforcement. On the contrary if the behavioural response is not desired then the subject will be punished, which could be an electric shock applied to the subject or something similar. This is known as positive punishment. Another way to reduce the likelihood of an unwanted behavioural response reoccurring is by removing a reward from the subject, which is negative …show more content…
This is when the subject is encouraged when performing tasks that become increasingly similar to the task they are required to carry out. An example of an experiment that would provide evidence on this subject is explained by Jack Michael (1963), where a rat is trained to climb on top of an upside down can and drop a marble into a hole cut in the top of the can through the process of shaping. The process is split down into two sections; the first is training the rat to pick up and drop the marble and the second is training the rat to climb on top of the can. The rat would first of all be placed in a chamber with several marbles and would be rewarded when it showed signs of picking up and then dropping the marble. This would eventually lead to the rat learning to straight away pick up the marble and then drop it a little while later. After this the rat would be placed in the same chamber but this time with only the tin can and no marbles. A similar process would occur in that when the rat showed signs of climbing on top of the can it would be rewarded until it eventually learned to climb on the can. The two components of the task would then be combined and the rat would be placed in a chamber with both the marbles and the tin can. It would then learn to combine the tasks it had previously learned by being rewarded as it showed signs of taking the
Joshua Klein was at a cocktail party with his friends when one was complaining about the crows in their yard. Joshua mentioned that they should train them to do something useful, and the friend responded that it was impossible. This is what brought Klein to his idea of making a vending machine for crows. Klein studied crows and found that they adapt a lot to live in our world. He figured he would make something useful and beneficial for both the birds and us. After spending years reading about crows, Klein made his vending machine.
“Operant conditioning is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. Through operant conditioning, an association is made between a behavior and a consequence for that behavior” (Cherry). Positive reinforcement which is praising a person for doing something good verses negative reinforcement which is an unpleasant remark a punishment. B.F. Skinner did an experiment on a rat, the rat was taught to push two buttons, one to receive food and the other was a light electric shock. The rat tried both buttons and realized which button was good and which one was bad. This experiment goes to show that upon the rewards and punishment system one can learn their rights from their wrongs through a series of lessons. Kincaid and Hemingway both use operant conditioning to show human behavior under stimulus control.
B.F Skinner developed operant conditioning. It’s the theory that one’s behavior is influenced by the actions that follow afterward. If the actions that follow afterward are consequences, then the behavior according to the theory will fade away. If the actions afterward is a positive action like a reward the behavior will continue on.
From the textbook, “Third Edition Psychology from Saundra K. Ciccarelli and J. Noland White, it is stated that Thorndike was one of the first researchers to explore and attempt to outline the laws of learning voluntary response, although the field was not yet called operant conditioning. He tested laws by using a hungry cat for an experiment. He placed this cat in a “puzzle box” where the only escape was the lever that was also within the box. Thorndike also placed food outside the box as motivation for the cat to escape the box. He observed how the cat explored around the box, pushing and rubbing up against the walls in an effort to escape. The cat eventually pushed the lever on accident, opening the exit to the box. The cat however, did not learn to push the lever to escape. The experiment was repeated in many trials in different formats of boxes, but with the same tool for escape. The cat spent less time to push the lever through each trial. From this research, he developed the law of effect, which states if an action is followed y a pleasurable consequence, it will tend to be repeated, and if followed by an unpleasant consequence, it will tend not to be repeated.
Operant conditioning is a kind of conditioning, which examines how often a behavior will or occur depending on the effects of the behavior (King, 2016, pg. ). The words positive and negative are used to apply more significance to the words reinforcement or punishment. Positive is adding to the stimulus, while negative is removing from the stimulus (King, 2016). For instance, with positive reinforcement, there is the addition of a factor to increase the number of times that the behavior occurs (King, 2016). An example of positive reinforcement is when a child is given an allowance for completing their household chores. The positive reinforcement is the allowance which helps to increase the behavior of doing chores at home. In contrast with negative
Since the arrival of our twins undesirable behavior has manifested in one of our 11 yr. old. While initially very conscienscious in helping attend to the infants & her ordinary duties, she has become accustomed to playing with them mostly now. This play in itself is great, except they no longer get the changing & feeding expected. Furthermore she uses them as an excuse now to put off doing the minimal domestic maintenance formerly performed. She is generally unresponsive to negative reinforcement options. Past experience shows she responds best to tactile & humanistic behaviorist techniques, backed up by specific instruction from our sacred texts observed in our household.
The first systematic study regarding operant conditioning was taken place in the 1800’s by the Psychologist, Thorndike. Thorndike formally defined operant conditioning as a type of learning that is controlled by the consequences of an organism’s behavior. However according to lecture, operant conditioning can be simply thought as performing an action in order to receive a reward. Operant conditioning can be useful when trying to deal with procrastination, increase efficacy of teaching, or to improve motivation. Therefore, operant conditioning can be used as a behavioral modification program to devise a more specific weight loss program to increase the roommate’s chances of making it on the football team. The program will include the following
According to Jeffery, (1965), the classical conditioning or known as Pavlovian conditioning is the changes of behaviour that was elicited by the stimulus and involuntary response, while the operant conditioning is the behaviour changes due to the consequences got. The consequences can be in term of reinforcement and punishment.
If a behavior is desirable, consequences called reinforcers are used to encourage the behavior in the future, via the process of reinforcement. Reinforcement can be positive (presenting reinforcing stimulus) or negative (removing a negative stimulus). However, if a behavior is undesired, a negative consequence can be used to discourage the behavior, through the process of either positive or negative punishment. In positive punishment, a negative consequence is presented after the undesired behavior occurs. When negative punishment it used the idea is the same “to discourage future display of undesired behavior,” but instead of presenting a negative stimulus, a desired stimulus is removed following the behavior.
Negative reinforcement can be reviewed the same way. Although both lead to strengthening a behavior, negative reinforcement does so by removing a negative stimuli, which could be anything that is unwanted. For example, my manager will cover all of the cleaning tasks if we sold at least one two hundred dollars of merchandise every day of the week. Therefore, all the workers would strive to sell at least two hundred dollars a day so that we would not have to care of any custodial tasks. In this example, the negative stimuli would be taking away the unwanted chores while the behavior would again be increasing sales. When discussing negative reinforcement it is important not to associate it with punishment, which is another form of
2011, p281). Regardless of their differences or similarities however, both have played an important part in the study of learning. With operant conditioning allowing to condition more complex behaviours that can be done with classical conditioning, and with classical conditioning being what helped discover operant conditioning in the first place, it can be argued here that the two are complementary. Indeed, one cannot speak of operant conditioning without mentioning classical conditioning, and vice
Behavioural learning theorists view learning as an observable change in behaviour and learned responses to stimuli. (Bochner, Duchesne,Krause, & McMaugh, 2013) Positive reinforcement is used to
Operant conditioning is a system of learning that transpires through punishment and rewards for behaviors (Kalat, 2011). Through this, a connection linking a behavior and a consequence is made. For instance a kid could be told that she will not get recess privileges if she talks in class. This possibility of being punished leads to decrease in disruptive behaviors from her. The major components of operant condition are punishment and reinforcement (Kalat, 2011).
The Reinforcement Theory coveys the belief that we learn through experiencing events and evaluating the consequences or results of our actions. Should the result be positive, we can condition our behaviour to repeat similar actions and conversely should the consequences be adverse,
In operant conditioning, there is an association between an individual’s behavior and its consequence. A consequence can either be reinforcement or punishment (233). Positive and negative reinforcements will increase the behavior. When an individual is reinforced, they will continue to repeat the behavior to receive the reinforcement again. Punishment, on the other hand, will decrease the behavior. If an individual is punished after a particular behavior, they will behave that way less often to avoid the punishment.