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One Health Essay

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Introduction
One health is a concept of bringing together human, animal, and environmental health. That is a further step of the control of infectious disease. Over three decades, epidemic of new infectious diseases has occurred more often. Many unknown diseases such as Lyme disease, Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Nipah virus disease, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) were not isolated before 1982. Moreover, growth rate of antibiotic resistance and re-emerging infectious diseases such as rabies and food-borne diseases are occurring nowadays. Where do these diseases come from? How can they be detected early? The answers are in the One Health which is a prevention strategy. In this report, it will be highlighted a brief explanation
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In the past, it was mainly about the interdependence of human, animal and environmental health. Then, it has included other aspects such as food security and poverty because these have effects on health. According to Miller et al (in Hasler et al., 2014), “One Health is a concept that addresses complex challenges to promote the health and well-being of all species through the integration of relevant sciences at the systems level.” As Bidaisee and Macpherson (2013) report, zoonotic diseases account for about 75 percent of new emerging infectious disease in human population. That means these diseases might be transmitted to human population from their natural hosts. Over 30 years, they have mutated crosses the species barrier to humans as a result of the increasing interconnection of humans on animals and animal products. Atlas and his colleagues (2014) also point out that human demographic, international travel, economic development and land-use, climate change and contact between human, domestic animals and wildlife contribute zoonotic diseases to transmit to humans. Therefore, a disease occurrence in animal population can be a sentinel event warning human health (Rabinowitz and Conti 2010). For example, HIV is the one of related viruses that has crossed into humans from animals. According to Alcamo (2003), HIV has biochemical similarities to simian immunodeficiency virus in the African green…show more content…
First of all, investigation into the diseases is to understand their transmission. According to Atlas et al (2014), after zoonotic organisms cross the species barrier to infect humans, there are several possible modes of transmission. Firstly, no further transmission means that an infected human is an endpoint of diseases such as rabies and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Secondly, nonsustained human-to-human transmission is a common way of influenza A (H5N1) and human monkeypox that are transmitted by close contact. Thirdly, sustained human-to-human transmission is the transmission from infected animals to humans. Fourthly, sustained transmission results in endemicity. The mutation of zoonotic organisms crossing the species barrier results from several factors which are from both hosts and organisms. In term of host, land use change, food and agricultural systems, human behaviour and environmental systems are main factors of the mutation, while organism’s biology and genetics play a significant role. In addition, they also state that the investigation assists to estimate the risk to human and the risk of transmission to humans. Moreover, it uses to determine a range of emergency response measures including surveillance, contact tracing, isolation, social distancing, available vaccination or medicines. For example, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARA) was caused by an animal
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