Many of these diseases originate from animal populations. Humans’ interaction with the environment, and animals contribute to the rate and prevalence of disease. All three areas are interconnected. One Health is a concept that views human, animal, and environmental health as one area of health. The three entities, when separated can hinder each other and delay progress.
Web.) Zoonotic diseases are diseases or infections that are transmitted from (vertebrate) animals and to humans. Zoonotic diseases are often compared to epidemics but epidemics an infectious disease in a community during a particular time. The life span of disease depends on its ability to survive in a human population for long periods of time. The life span can be further extended if the disease causing agent c... ... middle of paper ... ...e possibilities of becoming infected with a zoonotic disease.
Although the literature on animal assisted therapy suggests that there are numerous health benefits associated with having animals in various health care settings (i.e. nursing homes, assisted living facilities, and hospitals), there are also various risks that could arise (Brodie, Biley, & Shewring, 2002). Some of the most worrisome potential risks include: zoonotic infections (zoonoses), allergies, and bites. Understandably, the elder population is at an increased risk of contracting infections or having an allergic reaction to animals due to their frail immune systems (Owen, 2001, Brodie, Biley, & Shewring, 2002). The possibility of an elder contracting an infection is also increased in areas where the disease can easily be spread (i.e.
Researchers continue to rely on animal testing in a response to the emergence of new disease. (www.pro-test.org.uk ) At the end of 19th century several deadly diseases immerged such as smallpox, rabies, plague, cholera and typhoid. As a result of vaccinations developed using animal testing. In addition, the experiments saved millions of people worldwide (www.historyofvaccines.org). The work of Louis Pasteur and others inspired many modern scientist to establish the causes of virus and developed vaccines for numerous of infectious disease.
Article 3 Keyword – Disease – citation 1. Summary- This article was about “one health” which combines multiple disciplines to communicate and work together, such as veterinarians, medical practitioners, biologists, and public health professionals. Also the paper discussed the globalization of zoontonic diseases and how they are affecting humans. Humans have been affected by zoontonic diseases such as H5N1, s bird flu. Also there have been other diseases globally that have impacted humans affecting our trade, and food products.
Because of this research dozens of vaccines and antibiotics have been discovered and new advancements such as open-heart surgery have been perfected. Animals are used in research and testing when it is necessary to see what happens in the whole living body, where the use of human subjects would not be ethically acceptable (Biomedical Models). Most often animal research is very important in discovering new treatments for diseases and cannot be replaced by computer generated models. One of the best-known medical discoveries is that of insulin, which saves almost 500,000 American, lives each year (Chang). Many more discoveries have been made thanks to animal research and testing.
Human population are at risk from outbreaks of new diseases Are there reasons why modern humans might be more prone to infectious disease epidemics, and where do these come from? According to WHO (World Health Organisation) 2004 approximately 75% of new emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic (i.e. derive from animals). WHO (2011) also listed HIV/AIDS, as one of the main causes of death in the past decade. We are more prone to infectious disease epidemics compare to past populations.
“If vaccines were not tested on animals, millions of animals would have died from rabies, distemper, feline leukemia, infectious hepatitis virus, tetanus, anthrax, and canine parvovirus. Treatments for animals developed using animal testing also include pacemakers for heart disease and remedies for glaucoma and hip dysplasia.Animal testing has also been instrumental in saving endangered species from extinction” (procon.com) Another important aspect to note is that animal testing helps to ensure the safety of drugs and many other substances humans use or are exposed to regularly. Drugs, in particular, can carry significant dangers with their use over long periods of time. “Drugs, in particular, can carry significant dangers, but animal testing allows researchers to
However, more recently in human host, the host adaptability and immune responsiveness of a variant of leptospira sp., “L. interrogans” to host innate immunity was elucidated in infection or animal models although not very clear. A better and deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms of these species in response to host’s natural or the innate immunity is obligatory to learn the nature of early leptospirosis. Introduction: “Leptospirosis” is one of the zoonotic diseases which is caused by pathogenic Leptospira species. These are transmitted from reservoir hosts (especially rodents) to humans via water contaminated by infected animals.
The Importance of Research on Animals Research on animals is important in understanding diseases and developing ways to prevent them. The polio vaccine, kidney transplants, and heart surgery techniques have all been developed with the help of animal research. Through increased efforts by the scientific community, effective treatments for diabetes, diphtheria, and other diseases have been developed with animal testing. Animal research has brought a dramatic progress into medicine. With the help of animal research, smallpox has been wiped out worldwide.