This approach support the concept of distinguishing whose responsibility it is to learn. As stated by Weimer (2013), students will depend on teachers to identify to identify the information that needs to be learned, prescribe the learning methods, and assess how well the student has grasp the material (p. 15). The concept of learning needs to be a shared responsibility between both the teacher and the student. Self-directed learning gives the responsibility to the student with the belief that students can be responsible for learning on their own and gives the responsibility to the teacher of properly educating
(Hughes, 2001). He also believed that we must understand the child’s understandings of the world, and this should guide the teaching practises and evaluation. The fundamental basis of learning was discovery. To understand is reconstruct by discovery, and such conditions must be compiled... ... middle of paper ... ...n essentials that teachers should undertake to help maintain a healthy constructivist classroom. It is important to hold a belief that learning is restructuring of thought rather than an increase in content, and reconstruction or recall will reflect that particular ‘schema’ of the child.
Theorist David Ausubel presents a study that centers on organization of information and Carol Tomlinson introduced us to a differentiated approach. By exploring these theorists’ ways of thinking, we can see that both teachers can provide a well-rounded approach to their education if they would combine their ideas and use the tools that these theorists have given to education. David Ausubel’s theory is based in “advanced organizers.” This means that the teacher would base their lesson on a broad concept and work down to the specifics of the lesson. When using this strategy in a lesson, a teacher can help students focus on what is important and continue to make connections to the prior knowledge that they already have. Two organizers that are mentioned in the book, Educational Psychology are “comparative organizers” and “expository organizers.” The comparative organizer focuses on your prior knowledge and helps you connect what you are learning to what you already know.
“The function of high school, then, is not so much to communicate knowledge as to oblige children finally to accept the grading system as a measure of their inner excellence,” Jules Henry, a regarded American anthropologist once said. He believed that the American school system was flawed, that the basing intelligence of its students of the marks he or she received in class. The grading system of our school’s today is one of many problems that plague our education system. The issues of today can be shown in different forms in the 1800s, a time where the education of American citizens was forming. Though our education system has changed drastically from the 1800s, problems still litter our youth 's education that is comparable to the 1800s, from issues with teachers, students, and coursework.
What Wallace (2001) suggests is that teachers might be more interested in a type of research which is more under their own control and which might also be more relevant to the classroom, i.e. what is often called “action research”. Now, what is it about and what does it need? First of all, I would like to refer to the act of reflection for us as teachers. To develop a profesional competence we need to accomplish a cycle that is called the reflective cycle, stated by Wallace (2001), and that requires two main stages: the first one is Pre-training whose core is the learner’s existing conceptual schemata, that is to say, the prior knowledge the student has, an...
Different theories present own opinion of the most effective way through curriculum models. ‘Curriculum models are approaches or procedures for implementing a curriculum’. (Wilson, 2009: 522) Commonly curriculum are described as product, process and praxis. While curriculum as a product depends on the objectives as the learning goals and the measured means, a process model focuses on learning and relationship between learner and teacher. Chosen curriculum model depends on teaching and assessment strategies in some cases determinate by awarding bodies, organisational constrains, funding body and political initiatives.
Educational researchers are drawn to Carr and Kemiss’ understanding of action research because the primary focus of the theory is that of the teacher/practitioner. The idea and ‘modis operandi’ of any teacher/practitioners practise’ is to use self-reflection in day to day planning, and as a way of working, it is very close to the notion of reflective practice coined by Donald Schön (1983). I will be using Action Research as a method, because I want to change an existing practice that is already present in my current educational establishment. The systems and structures that I have taken over are not as effective as they could be. I need to implement a range of new initiatives, but I am unsure of how effective the new practice will be or how it may develop.
This method of problem-posing then action-taking to discover solutions stems from “Freire´s Popular Education principles, which emphasize that education should be guided by the needs and interests of the learners. Freire believed that education should be a process of dialogue, reflection, action, and transformation” (Pantoja, 2009, p.1). This philosophy is conducive to andragogy, and has practical applications which have helped to link the research on my problem to my practice in Adult Education. Action research, then, is a series actions that address the problem in a manner that is recursive and cyclic in that the results of one action determines the next, and then the next. It is a process which has helped to document my project results in a way that make sense of qualitative data.
American psychologist B.F. Skinner has provided a first illustration of this type of application through what was called modeling technique or increase the frequency of a behavior, according to a predetermined pattern, by rewarding desired behaviour or strengthening when it occurs. Conditioning working is that form of learning in which the consequences of behaviour influences the possibility thereof. The techniques used for the modification of the behaviour deviant pupils operates based on ignoring behavior of unwanted and strengthen desirable behavior
First, it examines the major philosophical systems and ideologies that have shaped educational thought and practice. Second, it outlines certain ideas from philosophy and ideology to illustrate how these disciplines contribute to educational theory. Third, in seeking to provide a context for educational philosophy, ideology, and theory, it includes biographical sketches of principal originators or contributors of leading ideas about education. The design of this text has effects in which philosophy, ideology, and theory are treated in a single volume. It will help to locate currently developing issues in education in this broader and more theoretical matrix.