There have been many debates in the field of psychology wether we behave the way we do due to nature or nurture. This controversy has many sides to it. Most of the time it can be concluded that they collaborate. But how do behavioural psychologists and geneticist actually find evidence that the genes play any role in our behaviour at all? Psychologist always try to find out what leads a person to a certain behaviour.
An age-old question has been asked for generations before us. What is the reasons behind the development of human behavior? There have been many theories formulated to explain why humans behave the way they do. Explanations vary from demonology to magnetic fluids controlling people’s behaviors. Over time, two theories have remained popular in academic fields such as philosophy and psychology.
During our century concepts like natural law, order, certainty became a matter of doubt for both theoretical and experimental scientists. Almost concomitantly biologists discovered that life phenomena had to be approached as chains of changes, so that the concept of creation was to be redefined together with the concept of order. Similar changes were recorded in the social sciences wich are dealing with animal and human collectivities. Finally, the uncontroversial model of exactness, mathematics, had refine its tools in order to tackle the problems issued from empirical sciences and to use efficiently the amazing facilities provided by electronic computational devices. All these changes of pattern in science have entailed many ideatic changes in the philosophical camp, where were working not only specialized philosophers but also scientists who used to expound sometimes polemically their own theses on topics from their domains.
Darwin’s theory ties to “nature versus nurture” because its basis lies in the assumption that we are born with innate abilities. These innate abilities are then adjusted based on the environment to ensure survival. Darwin’s theory of Evolution eventually transformed into psychology’s school of thought called functionalism. Functionalism is the study of human behavior and mental processes and how these behaviors and processes assist the individual in adapting to the constantly changing environment. Darwin’s observations and theories eventually lead to the formation of comparative psychology, or the systematic study of similarities and differences within a species (Goodwin, 2012, p.141-142).
The idea that the mind and body interacted with one anoth... ... middle of paper ... ...y. His development of the law of effect led to an expansion of behavioral theory in the sciences. Thorndike’s operant conditioning, along with Pavlovian processes, have informed the vast majority of behaviorist theory into the twenty-first century. Of these behaviorists, Watson (1870-1958) is viewed as the father, for it was he that established the psychological school of behaviorism. His interest tilted strongly toward observable behavior, and the idea that such behavior was fed by past experience.
Once the reluctant revolutionary, Charles Darwin, published his scientific findings in his book, On the Origin of Species, he forever changed and for centuries later shaped the world we live in. One of Darwin’s theories, supported by a large amount of evidence, which he published in this book, was that humans, along with all other living species, over time, are subject to evolve and change. This theory would later give birth to an entire new field, evolutionary psychology. Today, evolutionary psychology is an emerging, and still growing, field. Darwin’s evolutionary theory provided the framework to develop a new perspective, and thus field, in psychology.
No matter which way you believe, scientists all over the world have been struggling for centuries deciding whether our personalities are born to us or made by the world around us. How much of people’s behavior is due to their genetically determined nature (heredity), and how much is due to nurture, the influences of the physical and social environment in which a child is raised; is one of the major issues that psychologists address. For people like my ex-husband that believe heredity is the reason we are, I offer them behavioral genetics. Behavioral genetics studies the affects of heredity on behavior. These researchers are finding increasing evidence that cognitive abilities, personality traits, sexual orientation, and psychological disorders are determined to some extent by genetic factors (Feldman, R., 2008, p. 72).
This asks whether the behavior is basic instinct, or molded by each individual’s upbringing and external social factors. Thanks to philosophical theories and psychological methods we can approach the question of nature vs. nurture from an array of different angles. Natural state of man has been one of the major themes in political philosophy for centuries. Thomas Hobbes, a 17th century English philosopher, and John Locke, a 16th century English philosopher, had differing opinions when it came to the natural state of man. Locke believed that human behavior is solely influenced on nature.
From the beginning of time, mankind has been trying to answer the question what does the future hold for evolution? Thanks to scientists including Darwin, Lenski, and many other research facilities and colleges we now have information to prove that evolution is accruing today. While the theory of evolution is a very controversial subject, mosts scientists can agree that evolution is the basic understand of where humans cam from, and how we became who we are today. Researchers like Charles Darwin's proved that the original characteristic of a species can change over time as long as heritable variation exists. In conclusion in the response to environmental pressures, the characteristics will continue to change from one generation to the next, resulting in an ongoing human evolution.
Key Trends in Human-Environment Relationships over the Twentieth-Century Throughout the study of geography, there have been a variety of different approaches to explaining how the physical world has factored into the development of the world’s many cultures and societies. The relationship shared between humankind and the environment has always been one of immense complexity. Humanity has long been thought to act and think in direct response to his immediate surroundings. This in turn has enabled civilization to develop and be interpreted in diverse ways all across the globe. The correlation between the two would see further inquiry within the last one hundred years.