Nuclear Radiation Essay

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In nature radioactive material occurs either as naturally in the form of radioactive isotopes in rocks or as a consequence of human release such as during nuclear testing, normal maintenance of nuclear power plants and nuclear accidents such as those at Chernobyl and Fukushima Dallchi. Natural level of radiation sometime exceeds low baseline levels in uncontaminated areas by several hundred fold (Ghiassi-Nejad et al. 2002) resulting in significant rates of diseases in human (Lubin and Boice, 1997) and to other organisms can result in reproductive failure and death (Lubin and Boice, 1997; Ghiassi-Nejad et al. 2002).
Reproduction is considered to be one ofamong the most sensitive radiation-associated end points (UNSCEAR, 1996), and it not only determines the fate of the single organism, but also may influence the population dynamics and the balancestability of higher ecological units. Although many most of the tissues show negligible damage, the reproductive organs are very sensitive to gamma radiation because the germinal cells usually show moderate to severe damage (Tilton and Brower, 1983). The rapidly dividing germinal cells that are still in the process of differentiation are particularly radiosensitive, and because of their active division they express radiation damage quickly (Ref).
As atomic power is increasingly recognized as a potential energy source to sustain future human development, radiological protection of the environment will become an even more important environmental safety concern (ICRP 2003). In the past decades, scientific and regulatory activities related to radiation protection has been focused on the radiation exposure on humans. The prevailing view has been shown that, if humans were adequately protecte...

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...nizing radiation.
Many Much of the data concerning the effects of radiation on earthworms are derived from field studies in which, radionuclide activities in soil have been increased by artificial contamination or by field monitoring after nuclear accidents. These studies have shown effects such as reduced population size, changes in the distribution of life cycle stages, and reduced number of species. Hertel-Aas et al (2007) and Nakamori et al (2009) studied the effect of gamma radiation on the reproduction of the, Eisenia fetida, and found that gamma irradiation reduces the reproductive capacity of E. fetida. By keeping this information as a benchmark, an attempt has been made to seeperceive the consequences of gamma radiation on the reproductive ability and also on the seminal vesicles of the E. fetida after exposed to different doses of acute gamma radiation.

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