Novel Approaches in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Reducing the Incidence of Cardiovascular Diseases

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Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a growing cause of concern globally, mainly due to sedentary lifestyle encouraged by technology. According to statistics obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO), CVDs are the primary cause of deaths worldwide. It is estimated that more people die from CVDs annually than from any other disease. The WHO further reports that in 2004, CVD was responsible for 17.1 million deaths globally. This represented 29% deaths worldwide. Of these, 7.2 million deaths were due to coronary heart disease, while stroke was associated with 5.7 million deaths. The WHO estimates that by 2030, deaths due to CVD would amount to 23.6 million, most of which will have resulted from stroke and heart disease (“WHO Fact Sheet”). In sight of this grim reality, it is high time that scientists explore beyond conventional medicine. Current treatment of CVD involves balloon angioplasty, heart transplantation, coronary artery bypass surgery, and repair or replacement of valves. Though widespread, there are always implications and setbacks to these methods. In most cases of heart failure, congenital cardiac anomalies and post-myocardial infarctions, the only possible cure is heart transplantation because “the ischemically injured failing heart lacks contractile myocardium, functional vasculature, and electrical integrity, which has made treatment of the underlying injury untenable” (Ott, Davis and Taylor, 2005). However, due to a severe scarcity of organ donors and the fear of organ rejection, transplantation science needs a full-blown transformation. Therefore, in this proposal, I put forth possible areas of research in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine that are emerging as promising frontiers in transplantati... ... middle of paper ... ...diovascular Tissue Engineering: The Challenge to a Promise: A Minireview. International Journal of Inflammation, doi:10.4061/2011/958247. Song, J.J., Ott, H.C., 2011. Organ engineering based on decellularized matrix scaffolds. Trends in Molecular Medicine. doi: 10.1016/j.molmed.2011.03.005. Tee, R. et al., 2010. Strategies in cardiac tissue engineering. ANZ Journal of Surgery, 80(10), p.683-693. “WHO Fact Sheet”, 2011. World Health Organisation. Retrieved from Williams, D.J. & Sebastine, I.M., 2005. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine: manufacturing challenges. Nanobiotechnology IEE Proceedings, 152(6), p.207–210. Zammaretti, P. & Jaconi, M., 2004. Cardiac tissue engineering: regeneration of the wounded heart. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 15(5), p.430-434.

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