Norman N. Holland

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Norman N. Holland has been the well- known representative of the psychological sub-trend under the umbrella-term Reader Response Criticism. He was affected greatly by the theory of psychoanalysis by Sigmund Freud. Through his long life, Holland has contributed to the literary theory much. Most of the time, he is trying to explore the human brain and the minds of the individuals and their response to literature. In his autobiography, Holland informs us that he began teaching and writing in 1956. The thought that interested him is how we respond to literature, what criteria that make us like or dislike, or interpret a certain literary work into a certain interpretation. He found that the reason is the unique psychology which differentiates one individual from another: "I decided psychoanalysis was the best way to understand these responses. The reader receives the literary work and re-creates it using his own experiences and imagination, thus he turns it to another work."3 Holland has been one of the "Buffalo Scholars" who taught in the State University of New York-Buffalo. He refused the affective fallacy of the new critics who dismissed the roles of the readers in analyzing the literary work thinking they are subjective irrelevant unnecessary details which must be excluded. On the other hand, Holland argues that they are necessary to study the text, a literary work is best studied through the views of its readers which give it life and influence Holland mentions that the reader who is the main concern of the reader response criticism is not given the same attention and importance in the reception theory, and this is what makes a difference between them. Most of the time, he is trying to mod... ... middle of paper ... ...//"> /iser.htmlb -- -- --. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Available on; Other essays and other information are available on;
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