Normal Cognitive Development: An Introduction To Normal Cognitive Development

explanatory Essay
1276 words
1276 words

Normal Cognitive Development Introduction Cognitive Development is the development of intelligence a human acquires from infancy to adulthood, these abilities use intellect, conscious thought and problem-solving techniques. Numerous theorists have spent their lives work exploring cognitive development about how children learn, perceive, concentrate and remember things. They follow 3 essential elements: behavioural, social learning and constructivist theories. Concentrating on the above three elements we shall examine how these theorists developed their findings and what has led them to their beliefs on such a thing as normal behaviour. Behaviourist Theories are mainly concerned with observing behaviour which is a result of an external stimuli or response and there is no need to consider what is going on intellectually. Social Learning Theories are theories of learning …show more content…

Language is used both verbally & actively to come together to create meaning for a child. He created the concept of the zone of proximal development(ZPD) by highlighting the use of ‘scaffolding’ a term further developed by Bruner. These zones or gaps refer to what the child is currently able to do and what potentially can do. Through support, interaction and encouragement an adult can actively lead a child through a learning process. Moreover, many instructors use ZPD for teaching a child how to swim. Bruner (1915-) Constructivist Theories Children develop through different ways of thinking and are active in their own learning according to their own experiences constantly struggling to make sense of the world. Bruner developed a model of understanding in the way we see how a child learns he called this the Modes of Representation. Nevertheless, adults use all 3

In this essay, the author

  • Explains pavlov's theory of classical conditioning. he cultivated these associations by differencing through occurrence of the first event and anticipation of another event.
  • Explains that operant conditioning modifies behaviour, i.e. a child is rewarded for good behaviour in school (token economy) and gets gold star on test. thorndike's experiments with cats found that the cats remembered how to free themselves for food.
  • Explains that cognitive development is the development of intelligence a human acquires from infancy to adulthood, using intellect, conscious thought, and problem-solving techniques.
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