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1. In this equating design, the test takers were randomly assigned to take the old and new forms of the test. Kin and Kolen (2010) pointed out that population invariance was used to ensure that the scale was fixed across all test forms. However, the use of the common item non-equivalent groups design would be more appropriate since the non-repeaters and repeaters differ in their abilities. The use of the common or anchor items will indicate the performance of non-repeaters in comparison to the repeaters (Kolen and Brennan, 2004).

2. According to Livingston (2004), unsmoothing equipercentile equating (USEE) is generally used when the sample size is large. Kim & Kolen (2010) indicated that non-repeaters are more able than repeaters; this may create irregularities in the data. Kim and Kolen (2010) pointed out that the unsmoothed method is most appropriate in the study in order to avoid to the influence of the smoothed equipercentile equating method (used to remove irregularities) on population invariance. For example, smoothing could produce lower standard errors than the USEE Kolen and Brennan (2004). As a result, unsmoothing equipercentile equating method was used.

3. The equally-weighted root expected square difference (ewREMSD) was used in the study to give equal weight to all score points and to examine the impact of the subgroups on the test takers success or failure designations. The standardized root squared difference (RSD) was used to determine the equating difference between the subgroup, where the RSD index compares equating functions for the non-repeaters and repeaters to the total groups. The RWSD compared the subgroups by pairing and assigning an index to them and to detect...

... middle of paper ...

...ed 51.8% (n=2905) of the study, while 42% are from the upper SES (n=2699). Table 1 also shows that 51.9% of the students are females. Racial/ethnic groups were separated into six categories (whites, African Americans, Hispanics, American Indians, Asian or Pacific Islander and other races). Whites encompass 50.7% (n=2844), while African Americans encompass 28% (n=1622). The findings revealed that the principal has a 91.3% high school completion rate and a 6.0% arrest rate for students prior to age 18.

Logistic regression specified that there were several factors which contributed to students’ high school completion and number of arrest prior to age 18. The results are displayed in Tables 3 and 4. Only variables that were significant were included in the analysis. The Hosmer Lemeshow test for completion of high school indicated an acceptable fit for the data

1. In this equating design, the test takers were randomly assigned to take the old and new forms of the test. Kin and Kolen (2010) pointed out that population invariance was used to ensure that the scale was fixed across all test forms. However, the use of the common item non-equivalent groups design would be more appropriate since the non-repeaters and repeaters differ in their abilities. The use of the common or anchor items will indicate the performance of non-repeaters in comparison to the repeaters (Kolen and Brennan, 2004).

2. According to Livingston (2004), unsmoothing equipercentile equating (USEE) is generally used when the sample size is large. Kim & Kolen (2010) indicated that non-repeaters are more able than repeaters; this may create irregularities in the data. Kim and Kolen (2010) pointed out that the unsmoothed method is most appropriate in the study in order to avoid to the influence of the smoothed equipercentile equating method (used to remove irregularities) on population invariance. For example, smoothing could produce lower standard errors than the USEE Kolen and Brennan (2004). As a result, unsmoothing equipercentile equating method was used.

3. The equally-weighted root expected square difference (ewREMSD) was used in the study to give equal weight to all score points and to examine the impact of the subgroups on the test takers success or failure designations. The standardized root squared difference (RSD) was used to determine the equating difference between the subgroup, where the RSD index compares equating functions for the non-repeaters and repeaters to the total groups. The RWSD compared the subgroups by pairing and assigning an index to them and to detect...

... middle of paper ...

...ed 51.8% (n=2905) of the study, while 42% are from the upper SES (n=2699). Table 1 also shows that 51.9% of the students are females. Racial/ethnic groups were separated into six categories (whites, African Americans, Hispanics, American Indians, Asian or Pacific Islander and other races). Whites encompass 50.7% (n=2844), while African Americans encompass 28% (n=1622). The findings revealed that the principal has a 91.3% high school completion rate and a 6.0% arrest rate for students prior to age 18.

Logistic regression specified that there were several factors which contributed to students’ high school completion and number of arrest prior to age 18. The results are displayed in Tables 3 and 4. Only variables that were significant were included in the analysis. The Hosmer Lemeshow test for completion of high school indicated an acceptable fit for the data

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