Nitrogen Gas Experiment

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Aim: - An experiment on how a volume of nitrogen gas is affected by the pressure exerted on it. INTRODUCTION: Gases are composed of molecules and are not held by intermolecular forces of attraction. They move about in random directions constantly colliding with one another and with their container walls without loss of kinetic energy. Thus, the collision of gases is said to be elastic since kinetic energy is not lost. As collision between gas particles become faster and more frequent, the impact on the walls of their container becomes more forceful and occurs more often. This increases the gas pressure on the walls of the container. Boyle’s law can be used to explain this occurrence as it establishes a link between gas pressure and volume. Boyle’s Law states that for a fixed mass of gas at constant temperature, its pressure is inversely proportional to its volume. This can be expressed as: P ∝ 1/V ………………….. equation (i) PV = constant ……………………..equation (ii) APPARATUS REQUIREMENT: Nitrogen gas oil Air pump Pressure gauge Meter rule Uniform glass tube Water bath ASSUMED PROCEDURE: The nitrogen gas is trapped at the top of the uniform vertical tube made of glass as shown in the diagram below and oil is then used to trap the gas. To compress the nitrogen gas, the valve is opened then a foot-pump is used to increase the pressure in the glass tube. The pressure is measured directly from the pressure gauge. Since the glass tube used is uniform that is the area is constant, the height that marks the trapped gas can be used as a measure of its volume. The tube is placed in a water bath so that the gas is at a constant temperature. The pressure is increased in steps and at each step, the height is measured and recorded. ... ... middle of paper ... ... CONCLUSION: The basic principle governing this experiment is Boyle’s law. “Boyle’s law states that provided temperature is constant, the volume of a given amount of gas will vary inversely with the pressure in the container.” The experiment proved to satisfy Boyle’s law and this can be deduced from the relationship shown on Figure 3.3 which shows a direct proportionality to the inverse of height which is also an inverse proportionality to height. Volume of the gas = Cross-sectional area of the tube x height. Since the cross-sectional of the area is constant throughout the experiment, the height becomes the varied variable as it is responsible for the change in volume. The height becomes directly proportional to the volume of the gas. The values for height are used instead of volume because it is the height alone that determines the volume.
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