The atomic weight of nitrogen is 14.007.Nitrogen is obtained from the atmosphere by passing air over heated copper or iron. The oxygen is removed from the air, leaving nitrogen mixed with some inert gases. Pure nitrogen is obtained by partial evaporation of liquid air because liquid nitrogen has a lower boiling point than liquid oxygen, the nitrogen evaporates off first and can be collected.Nitrogen composes about four-fifths (78.03 percent) by volume of the atmosphere. Nitrogen is inert and serves as a diluent for oxygen in burning and respiration processes. It is an important element in plant nutrition certain bacteria in the soil convert nitrogen from the atmosphere into a form, such as nitrate, that can be absorbed by plants, a process called nitrogen fixation.
Also, Carl Wilhelm Scheele and Joseph Priestley were studied this gas. The last one was the chemist Jean-Antoine Chaptal in 1832 who Was suggested Latin term nitrogenium from the Greek nitro. It was appointed the N later in 19th century. Plants produce proteins composite nitrogenous easy dissolved in the soil. Some nitrogen dissolved in the soil comes from the atmosphere to form nitric acid, reacts nitrogen with oxygen in the event of lightning component of numerous compounds known as oxides of nitrogen, which in turn react with water consisting of nitric acid, which endured rain to the soil.
One of the reason as to why sulphuric Acid is important to the chemical industry because it has many different uses examples of this include lead-acid vehicles battery, oil refining and over 50% of sulphuric acid is used as fertilisers. Physical and chemical Properties Sulphuric acid contains two hydrogen atoms as well as four oxygen atoms and a single sulphur atom. It is a colourless liquid that is very acidic, with a pH of 0.85, making it very dangerous. Because it is contains the hydrogen atoms it make it an amphiprotic molecule, making it able to both donate and accepts hydrogen atoms, when it needs too. It is also a diprotic acid, with the first stage of ionization, H2SO4 → H+ + HSO4- HSO4- → H+ + SO4-2 Some physical properties that sulphuric acid has are: • Melting Point: 10.3 degrees • Boiling Point: 338 degrees • Formula weight: 98.08 • Specific gravity: 1.94 • Flash point: none • Density: 1.84g/cm3 Sulphuric acid is also a oxidizing agent as well as a drying agent because of its properties with water.
Historical Development of Atomic Structure Yazan Fahmawi Sept. 30, 1995 T3 IBS Chemistry Ms. Redman The idea behind the "atom" goes back to the Ancient Greek society, where scientists believed that all matter was made of smaller, more fundamental particles called elements. They called these particles atoms, meaning "not divisible." Then came the chemists and physicists of the 16th and 17th centuries who discovered various formulae of various salts and water, hence discovering the idea of a molecule. Then, in 1766 was born a man named John Dalton born in England. He is known as the father of atomic theory because he is the one who made it quantitative, meaning he discovered many masses of various elements and, in relation, discovered the different proportions which molecules are formed in (i.e.
The book was published in 1794. He first stated his theory in 1803: that each chemical element is composed of its own kind of atoms, all with about the same weight. His theory explained why one substance with a curtain amount of mass joins with another substance with the same amount of mass, which forms compounds; this doesn't alway take place. His law also concluded that two solids can not occupy the same space at the same time, although he concluded that a liquid, and a gas can occupy the same space at the same time. His law was the first useful atomic theory of matter.
If an atom has a Z of 6, it is carbon, whereas a Z of 92 matches up to uranium (Encyclopedia Britannica. 2011). In short quantity of protons in the nucleus governs the chemical properties of an atom (Encyclopedia Britannica. 2011). Orbits describe the chemical properties of dissimilar atoms (Encyclopedia Britannica.
Atomic Theory In the beginning of the 1800s John Dalton, an English scientist did work some work on gases, which lead him to the creation of a complex system of symbols for all known elements at the time. He took all the information he had collected, along with the Laws of Conservation of Mass, Definite Composition and Multiple Proportions and updated Aristotle's theory of matter with the Atomic Theory of Matter, which stated: - All matter is composed of tiny, indivisible particles called atoms. - Atoms of an element have identical properties. - Atoms of different elements have different properties. - Atoms of two or more elements can combine in constant ratios to form new substances.
The process was soon scaled up by Carl Bosch. Ammonia is manufactured by the Haber process. The Process combines nitrogen from the air with hydrogen derived mainly from natural gas (methane) into ammonia. The reaction is reversible and the production of ammonia is exothermic( releases heat). Nitrogen and hydrogen react together only if there is: 1) high temperature 2) high pressure 3) an iron catalyst The reaction is: nitrogen + hydrogen ammonia N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) A diagrammatic way of showing The Haber
For their efforts and contributions to developing large-scale industrial processes, they were awarded with Nobel Prizes in Chemistry. The chemical equation for the Haber Process is 3H2(g)+N2(g) 2NH3(g). The Haber process is the industrial process for the manufacture of ammonia (NH3) from hydrogen (H2) and nitrogen (N2). Hydrogen (H2) is obtained from the reaction of methane (CH4) and steam (H2O(g)), producing carbon monoxide (CO) as a byproduct. The hydrogen (H2) produced from this reaction also reacts with oxygen (O2) from air (N4O) producing water (H2O) and leaving nitrogen (N2) behind, recalling the fact that air consists of seven percent nitrogen (N2), twenty-one percent oxygen (O2) and two percent of other products.
Nitrogen oxide (NOx) Nitrogen oxides (NOx) especially nitrogen dioxide are emitted from high temperature combustion. Nitrogen dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula NO2. It is one of the several nitrogen oxides. This reddish-brown toxic gas has a characteristic sharp, biting odor. NO2 is one of the most prominent air pollutants.