“There is widespread evidence of an attentional bias towards threat material in clinical anxiety” (MacLeod, Mathews & Tata, 1986; Mogg, Mathews & Eysenck, 1992). Certain treatments have been created for anxiety disorders that have been shown to reduce cognitive biases such as attentional bias, Fox et al (2005). This indicates that attentional bias is present within anxiety disorders. Stroop tasks have further developed research on attentional bias within anxiety as shown by Macleod (1991) and Macleod and Mathews (2002). Participants with anxiety disorders produce slower reaction times towards threat stimuli than the controls, indicating that attentional bias for threat related stimuli exists and has a greater effect on anxious individuals.
(1997). Evidence for Racial Prejudice at the Implicit Level and Its Relationship With Questionnaire Measures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72(2), 262-274. doi: 10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1992
M.S., Pan, W., Kirschman, K.J.B., Lutz-Zois, C., & Lyons, A.M. (2008). Negative affect and anger rumination as mediators between forgiveness and sleep quality. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 31, 478-488. doi: 10.1007/s10865-008-9172-5 Thase, M.E. (2005). Correlates and consequences of insomnia.
The study did found evidence for interpersonal and noninterpersonal chronic life stress continuation in both depressive and anxiety disorders. Ultimately, this study has provided research with new evidence that shows that stress generation is not just limited to depression disorders, but is also present in anxiety disorders and neuroticism. References Uliaszek, A. A., Zinbarg, R. E., Mineka, S., Craske, M. G., Griffith, J. W., Sutton, J. M., & ... Hammen, C. (2012). A longitudinal examination of stress generation in depressive and anxiety disorders.
The presence of depression disrupts the young person’s maturational development through the detrimental impact it has on social and educational functioning. For example, evidence indicates that major depression slows down some aspects of cognitive development and interferes with the acquisition of verbal skills; which can lead to dropping out of school, (Kovacs, 1989). Moreover, research indicates that in the long-term, depression that reoccurs leads to an increased risk for depressive disorder and dysfunction in adulthood, (Garber, Kriss, Koch, & Lindholm, 1988). Not only is adolescent depression the most significant predictor for adult depression; it also predicts increased risk among females of higher divorce rates and estrangement from parents, while among males there exists increased risk for higher rates of unemployment and car accidents. Both have increased risk for intimacy problems and legal activities (McFarlane, Atchison, Rafalowicz, & Papay, 1994).
... ... middle of paper ... ...Test of Eysenck’s Arousal/Arousability Hypothesis. Journal of Individual Differences, 30(2), 87-99. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/1614-0001.30.2.87 Lindín, M., Zurrón, M., & Díaz, F. (2007). Influences of Introverted/Extraverted Personality Types on p300 Amplitude Across Repeated Stimulation. Journal of Psychophysiology, 21(2), 75-82. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/0269-8803.21.2.75 Matthews, G., Davies, D. R., & Lees, J. L. (1990). Arousal, Extraversion, and Individual Differences in Resource Availability.
All in all, the cause of mental illness can be summarised as a complex combination of psychological, social and biological response to environmental stressors, responding behaviour, physiology and connected to social context (Savy and Sawyer, 2009). Mental illness has been developed primarily due to the cause of circumstances around the individual and way of individual’s action to tolerate the situation. Hence, the combination of causes outside and inside the individual results in mental illness. Individual preference such as drug and alcohol use also develops and worsens the mental health problems, in some cases.
Journal of abnormal psychology, 111(2), 225. Fox, E. (1993). Attentional bias in anxiety: Selective or not?. Behaviour research and therapy, 31(5), 487-493. De Geus, F., Denys, D. A., Sitskoorn, M. M., & Westenberg, H. G. (2007).
Having anxiety is common and a part of everyday life however; there is a huge difference between a fear and a social phobia or anxiety disorder. The difference and important distinction psychoanalysts make between a fear and a phobia is “a true phobia must be inconsistent with the conscious learning experience of the individual” (Karon 1). Patients with true phobias “do not respond to cognitive therapy but do respond well to psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic therapy” (Karon 2). Social phobia is a serious anxiety disorder that should not be taken lightly or mistaken as a fear you will simply grow out of the older you get. Social phobia has the power to destroy lives and can prevent people from living and enjoying their life to the fullest.
Journal of Business and Psychology, 22(2), 123-134. doi:10.1007/s10869-007-9053-x Ryan, A. M., Ployhart, R. E., , & Friedel, L. A. (1998). Using personality testing to reduce adverse impact: A cautionary note. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(2), 298-307. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.83.2.298