Racial Discrimination is a detrimental stressor among African Americans (Sellers et al., 2003). As a result, African Americans are more likely to be faced with poorer mental and physical health outcomes. There has been research conducted relating to African Americans’ experience with racial discrimination. Specifically African Americans exposed to racial discrimination are likely to experience multiple externalizing outcomes, including anger aggressive behavior and delinquency (e.g., Kang & Burton, 2014). Given these negative outcomes of racial discrimination, it is important to identify factors that are protective against racial discrimination. Racial identity is defined as the importance of race to African Americans as well as the meaning …show more content…
Experiences of racial discrimination start from the time of adolescence and continue to the time of adulthood. Due to the fact that racial discrimination is long term, it can mentally tramatize and physically harm African Americans (Harrell, 2000). There are various aspects to racism, thus it is defined in many ways. In this current study, racism is defined as one racial group dominating another racial group and viewing the dominated group as lesser and inferior. As a result of this inferiority, the lower group does not have access to the same society resources as the high group (Harrell, 2000). Some evidence documents that adolescents' reports of personal racial discrimination are associated with externalizing behaviors and internalizing behaviors, including anger, aggressive behavior, delinquency, depression and anxiety (Lambert et al., 2009). Racial identity has been considered to understand associations between racial discrimination and outcomes. This current study looks at the importance of specifically racial identity as opposed to social …show more content…
Loyd and Williams (2016) define ethnic-racial identity as a “multidimensional psychological construct that represents the aspect of a person's overall identity that is associated with race or ethnicity.” These facets of racial identity develop and consolidate when a person continuously explores and associates with a specific racial group (Loyd & Williams, 2016). The more positive people feel about membership of a specific group, the stronger their racial identity will be. Neville and Cross (2017) conceptualize Black racial identity through the emphasis of being cognizant and conscious of what it means to be Black mentally, politically and socially. Sellers and Colleagues (1998) define racial identity as the importance and specific meaning one attaches to their racial group. They consider both the historical and cultural background associated with African Americans when examining their group membership. They primarily focus on the status of one's racial identity as opposed to the process of the formation of it. Sellers and Colleagues (1998) define racial identity in African Americans as “the significance and qualitative meaning that individuals attribute to their membership within the Black community.” Our current study uses Sellers and Colleagues (1998) definition of racial identity. There are four main dimensions of the MMRI: Racial Salience, Racial Centrality, Racial Regard and Racial Ideology
Click here to unlock this and over one million essaysShow More
It is commonly thought that one has to struggle in order to be black. Black people tend to have a stronger sense of group identification than any other racial group in the United States. The question is whether or not this is helpful or detrimental to the black population. In “Promoting Black (Social) Identity” Laura Papish criticizes Tommie Shelby’s We Who Are Dark. Shelby argues that the black population’s sense of group identity is vital to furthering their collective political agenda. Shelby believes that best way to make sure that their political ideologies are cohesive is for black individuals to have a “thick conception of black identity” (Papish 2).” Having a thick sense of black identity calls for “ African Americans think of themselves as and act as a ‘nation’ constituted not by physical borders, but by a shared ethnic, cultural, or biological trait that imbues the community with a ‘general will’ and this “ will” typically includes political motives (Papish 2). Papish argues that it not part of the duty of a black person to have any sense of loyalty or solidarity with other African-Americans and that not doing so does not make them any less black than those that choose to have a thick sense of black identity. Those who don’t grow up with a strong black group identity in their lives are just as black and go through some of the same struggles that other black people do. In the video “Black Like Who?” Debbie Reynolds did not have a strong sense of blackness because she was raised in a white neighbor. The other ladies in the short film talk about how they thought that she had a “ real problem with [her] ethnicity like [she] had a problem with the fact that [she] born African-American (Reynolds). This along with the documentary on Lacey Schwartz show that a person’s sense of blackness is very much a product of what others around them define blackness as. However, it is not clear
In the United States, racial discrimination has a lengthy history, dating back to the biblical period. Racial discrimination is a term used to characterize disruptive or discriminatory behaviors afflicted on a person because of his or her ethnic background. In other words, every t...
In American, there is a big problem that is racial discrimination. Because the long-standing institutionalized discrimination results in this problem. So what is institutionalized discrimination? How has discrimination become institutionalized for various ethnic subpopulations in the United States?
Galliher, R., Jones, M., Dahl, A., (2010).Concurrent and longitudinal effects of ethnic identity and experiences of discrimination on psychosocial adjustment of Navajo adolescents. American Psychological Association, 47(2), 509-526. Doi:10.1037/a0021061
Comparing and contrasting models of identity development in people of color with racial identity models for whites, in Chapter 12 they address the issue of White identity development and discuss how it may impact clients of color. These specialists point out that while the Racial/ Cultural Identity Development model in people of color proves beneficial in our work as therapists, more attention should be devoted toward the White therapist's racial identity.
It has been said that the physical variations in the human species have no meaning except the social one that humans put on them. Society has placed stigmas on race dating all the way back to the 1600s. Still in the 21st century the American society is still trying to work through racial boundaries. With such stigmas being placed on them, biracial individuals often self-identify or be identified by others differently, depending on the social context. A biracial individual’s racial identity development is contingent upon many factors, both internal and external. With the dramatic increase in the number of individuals with a bi or multiracial background it is important for us to recognize the complexity of the racial identity development of this culture. It is critical to understand the hardships as well as the advantages of being biracial, to help them avoid any negative behaviors which could yield lifelong consequences. The healthy development of one’s racial identity is imperative for a biracial child to be able to achieve and maintain a positive psychological and social adjustment throughout the lifespan.
· Dashefsky, A. (Eds.). (1976). Ethnic identity in society. Chicago: Rand McNally College Publishing Co. Smith, E.J. (1991). Ethnic identity development: Toward the development of a theory within the context of majority/minority status. Journal of Counseling and Development, 70, 181-187.
Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM). The MEIM (Phinney, 1992) is a broad measure of ethnic identity across three major dimensions (ethnic identity achievement, affirmation and belonging, ethnic behaviors). Fourteen items are rated on a 4-point scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 4 (strongly agree) to measure ethnic identity. A higher score on the MEIM represents a greater ethnic identity, while low scores indicate greater assimilation attitudes. For the analysis, the rating for each item will be scored and one total score will used to determine the level of ethnic identification between African Americans and European Americans. In the current study, alpha = .87. Sample items from the MEIM include, “I have a clear sense of my ethnic background and what it means for me,” “I have a lot of pride in my ethnic group” and “I am happy I
...of many concepts forwarded by academicians that inaccurately assesses identity development. Dr. Cross conceptualized theories are oversimplified, as they implicate all black Americans as unified in their upbringing; family structure; values systems, beliefs, economic status, level of education, and exposures to racial indifference; which is clearly inaccurate. Simplistic models of this sort exclude an individual’s experiential background, which provides important variables to consider when assessing one’s comprehension of what it means to be black. Further, Dr. Cross’ model failed to explicate a connection between identity and psychological functions.
Adolescences has always been the most crucial time for developing identity. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between racial identity development of African American adolescents and the role of education. This paper will discuss the effects race has on identity and adolescent development. Following, it will compare students education from a racial perspective and the lasting effects after adolescence.
Racism is still a very prominent yet controversial topic in the United States today. Discrimination in the United States dates back to the 1500s when America was first founded. As generations passed, it has become a social norm to believe that darker skin tones are less desirable to society. The foundation of this country was built upon the false impression that Whites were superior to not just blacks, but all other ethnicities. From this, the idea of white privilege was derived and is still prevalent in society today. Those who are victims of discrimination are sometimes not aware of the psychological effect and the overall impact it can have on one’s life. The persistence of racism over generations has been in correlation to adversely affect the mental health of the victims economically, socially and in turn physically.
The model led to the development of an assessment instrument to measure the white racial identity. According to Helms, developing a healthy white identity requires transition through two phases, abandonment of racism, and definition of a non-racist white identity. The two phases are characterized by six distinct racial identity statuses that are equally distributed. They include autonomy, contact, disintegration, immersion/emersion, pseudo independence, and reintegration. I find this model detailed, informative and helpful in understanding the white racial identity (Derald Wing Sue,
Martin, Monica J., et al. "The Enduring Significance of Racism: Discrimination and Delinquency among Black American Youth." Journal of Research on Adolescence (Wiley-Blackwell), vol. 21, no. 3, Sept. 2011, pp. 662-676. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1111/j.1532-7795.2010.00699.x.