Institute of Medicine (US) Forum on Microbial Threats. Summary and Assessment. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 18 June 0000. Web. 18 Feb. 2014.
Hormones that were once thought to only be important for pregnancy and sexual drive are now shown to have profound effects on just about every organ in the body. (*) Some researchers believe that higher exposure to estrogen, in females, or androgens, in males, during fetal development not only causes the sex organs to form but also predisposes the infant to behavior that is typically associated with one gender or the other. (*) For example, girls that were exposed to higher than normal prenatal levels of androgens were more likely than other females to engage in “boy-like” behavior and to play with boy’s toys eve... ... middle of paper ... ...erences-between-mens-and-womens-brains/ 5. Leo, J. (2000).
An example is that girls may copy their mothers and help them in the kitchen while boys would help their fathers wash the car to imitate what the father does. This shows the child the acceptable behavior for their sex and thus, they follow it to fit into the norm. The social learning theory is reinforced by the praise or punishment the parents then give to the child. Each time the child is praised for a gender appropriate behavior, they are likely to repeat it and then, fall into the typical gender type. Each time the child is penalized for not acting like their gender, they are less likely to repeat the behavior.
Most often, these are simple things like cleaning their room, showering and brushing their teeth every day, eating their vegetables, and going to school. A child probably will not want to clean their room, nor will they be given a satisfactory reason as to why they should; yet they still must do this, in a way, against their will. While parents are trying to establish certain values and habits in their children, they are also teaching them that, when an authority tells them to jump, that the appropriate response is “How high?” and not “Why?” It is also here, in childhood, and even more so in adolescence, where they begin to experiment with defiance of the authority. As they become more a... ... middle of paper ... ...t and will defy your rule. The relationship between authority and obedience is an integral fiber of our society; to teach children that it is acceptable to defy authority only if it is wrong would weaken that fiber because it is also teaching them that defiance is not always bad.
Oxytocin receptors in the uterus, at the start of labor, increase considerably and reach their peak at the time of delivery. The oxytocin will have little effect if the receptors on the uterine muscle are not developed. The fetus, it seems, also plays a role. The fetal membranes release prostaglandins in large amounts during labor. Along with the fetal oxytocin concentrations released, fetal cortisol is also released in large amounts due to the fetal adrenaline.