We want students to remember and transfer this knowledge not memorize. As part of instruction delivery, teachers incorporate guided practice through active application of information. Individual guided practice can occur during small or large group academic practice activities. Teachers are creative in incorporating individual interests to motivate students to practice
Those Pre-services teacher who scan both problematic and effective experiences develop more in their teaching SRL strategies. On the other side those who only focused problematic experiences not adapt SRL strategies. By merging two more factors; learning from problems (LFP) and learning from successes (LFS) into SRL model, pre-service teachers can enhance their confidence and experiences and the most important thing that how they can assist there students in learning SRL strategies in class room and promote the ideology of SRL.
Both Piaget’s and Vygotsky theories are admitted that teacher’s role is to facilitate and give guidance instead of giving the command to children itself. Questioning and answering method is being used and forms of teaching are given in both theory. The educational implications of Piaget’s theory are focusing on the concept of relevant education, like materials, curriculum, and instructions. According to Piaget’s theory in the classroom, students are given a simple practice skills to a complex technique. The educator is also recommended to provide wide range of experiences to develop student concept of learning.
; (4) analysis of data: What are the important considerations? ; (5) testing possible solutions: What will happen if this action is followed? ; and (6) conclusion: What action is most promising? The problem-solving method of teaching incorporates problem-solving activities, but places the responsibility for learning on the student. It requires teachers to move from the traditional instructional model to one that engages teachers and students as partners in learning, with the teacher functioning in the role of facilitator or coach rather than leader or all-knowing authority.
It is important to hold a belief that learning is restructuring of thought rather than an increase in content, and reconstruction or recall will reflect that particular ‘schema’ of the child. They also believe that the use of cognitive conflict promotes the consolidation of concepts. The use of ‘wrong’ answers also helps students analyse their thinking in order to retain the correct elements and revise their misconceptions. Promoting social interaction, peer friendships and co-operation, also increases their interest and comprehension in learning, as well as improve the child’s conflict resolution skills. Teachers continually learn about ways people learn – the processes of learning and how individuals learn best.
The students are the focus, and the teacher is the one who can assist among small groups of students. Eaton (1994) describes student-centered learning as the opposite if "teacher-centered". Another way of looking at student-centered learning is that the goals of a system (school) should meet the goals of the students (Harmon, & Hirumi, 1996). Next, the definition that naming students as "partners" with teachers in education can be part of the student-centered learning process (Alley, 1996). Lastly, Csete and Gentry (1995) use the term "learner controlled instruction" instead of a student-centered approach.
One method is through scaffolding, providing a student with sufficient information to be able to complete a task on his own or, to present a gradual decrease in the amount of help availible allowing the student the capacity to work independantly. Situated learning will present the student with a set of learning tasks placed in realistic contexts. This will include the abilities to use knowledge in a functioning learning approach and acquiring inert knowledge based on the learning of isolated facts in limited conditions. Lastly, students should, through the use of multiple perspectives, be able to view problems and ideas. These ideas presented will then be able to shed light on the nature of problem solving.
Concerning these, Bloxham and Boyd (2007) argued that “for assessment to function in a formative way that supports students’ future learning, the findings have to adjust teaching”. For the case of practice learning, it helps mentors to get a clearer view of where learners are experiencing difficulties and they can adjust their support and guidance provided to the learners. This is supported by Black and William (1998) who suggested that assessment becomes ‘formative’ when the evidence is actually used to adapt the teaching to meet the needs of students or by the students themselves to change the way they work at their own learning. Formative assessment seeks to present learners with explicit goals or outcomes of instruction, to help them assess their current position in relation to these goals, and to equip them with the tools to bridge the gap between the two. Thus, effective formative assessment must help students answer the following questions: 1.
Constructivism versus Traditionalism There are methods that are considered very different than constructivism that are used in the classroom. One of the approaches is the traditional approach where the teacher teaches the information to the student, and the student does not contribute as much or convey the prior knowledge of the material during instruction (Airasian & Walsh, 1997). It has been said that traditional teaching can segregate students, especially ones with special needs, in the classroom (Bloom; Perlmutter& Burrell, 1999). In other words, traditional instruction is a more teacher-centered approach that uses rote, fact based learning. The teachers create the values, behaviors, and beliefs for the students.
Constructivism learning is an active, constructive process. The leaner is an information constructor. Learning as experience, activity and dialogical process; Problem Based Learning PBL); Anchored instruction; Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD); cognitive apprenticeship ( scaffolding); inquiry and discovery learning. The role of the teacher is we have to adapt to the role of facilitators. One that encourages people to find their own solutions to problems or tasks.