As with the topic of beauty, War, or Religion, nationalism and its roots are a again, a being of much controversy. Constantly being argued upon, assumptions of nationalism’s creation ranges from it being solely created upon historic, religious, social, geographical, and economical factors, or any combination(s) of the factors stated. An example of an argument which supports History as being the primary (and possibly the only) source of nationalism is prevalent within Margret Macmillan’s work The Uses and Abuses of History (2009) where she states that “History provides much of the fuel for Nationalism” and that the “celebration of the nation’s great achievements—and the shared sorrow at its defeats—sustain and foster it.” What she fails to mention is that there is more to development of nationalism than just history. Through my eyes it is evident that Professor Macmillan hasn’t fully grasped the depth, or simply has ignored the other factors of nationalism. In respect to a nation and its nationalism, history has a major impact on its... ... middle of paper ... ...D=567>.
This is because nationalism can exist in a wide range of socioeconomic settings ranging from rich settings to poor settings as well as in pre-industrialised and the industrialised conditions. It is also difficult to explain the intensity and the content of particular nationalism through the workings of global capitalism. The third and the most crucial problem with the modernist theories is the claim that nationalism is a product of modernisation. This claim overlooks ethnic and cultural ties in most parts of the world and the significance of these factors. /// Ethno symbolic approaches provide that nationalism cannot be understood without reference to earlier ethnic ties and memories.
This creates debates about which factors scholars should focus on for any given form of nationalism. Should scholars take a primordialist approach and focus on kinship ties, myths of ancestry, and instinctual loyalty? Or, should scholars take a situationalist approach focus upon changing economic and political factors which influence the rational decisions of individuals? Or, should scholars study nationalism as an ideology and explain the role of the state as an ideological enforcer and the role nationalism plays in securing the insecure masses? In certain cases people may think it is adequate to take all of the separate theories into considerations, mixing primordialist ideas of instinctual loyalty and myths of homeland with constructivist ideas of constructed national identity.
This is different from past beliefs that pride and loyalty rests in religion. Its biggest strength was to cut across the social classes and motivate large groups of people. Stavrianos, 1999) Nationalism developed in the 1770’s gaining major support throughout Europe. The earliest signs of nationalism were found in England during the puritan revolution. England during the time of the revolution was becoming a leading nation scientifically and economically which they thought would change they viewed freedom.
As a result, there is a concern with the allocation of resources that would give some people more power than others. Finally, the third feature of conflict theory is that values and ideas are seen as a weapon that can be used by different groups to attain what they want rather than achieving what is best for the group. Within conflict theory there are those who are analytical conflict theorists. Ralf Dahrendorf is grouped into this category. Dahrendorf argues that there is an inherent tendency to have conflict in our society, hence groups wit... ... middle of paper ... ...orms for that society.
During World War I, Great Britain and the United States of America used propaganda very efficiently in efforts to increase nationalism, gain support and raise money for the war. One of the main causes of the outbreak of World War I, nationalism, was promoted through propagandistic campaigns. Posters and slogans were created to build this sense of pride in one’s nation. Nationalism, or powerful patriotism towards one’s own country, fueled the idea of superiority amongst the nations on the warfront. Many countries’ egotism in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century led to the belief that if a war were to break out, that specific country would come out victorious in any conflict.
To begin our examination of the effects of nationalism, we must first define the term nationalism? According to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, the term nationalism is comprised of two distinctive ideas. Firstly, nationalism may refer to the “attitude that the members of a nation have when they care about their identity as members of that nation”and secondly nationalism may also refer to “the actions that the members of a nation take in seeking to achieve (or sustain) some form of political sovereignty.” These definitions provides a semi-conclusive idea of what the term nationalism encompasses. however, why does nationalism matter to the state? And why is it essential to the development of that state?
The study of international relations is very broad and complex. It is the study of nations and states and how they are formed. It is also the study of measures, such as revolutions and wars, that create different nations and states and the reasons behind such measures. One important concept in international relations is the view of nationalism. Nationalism is a part of every nation and state and thus is relevant to each country.
Nationalism and imperialism both had good intentions individually, but when you combine the two, that’s when the results become disastrous and uncontrollable. Nationalism is the belief that one’s country should support everything it does, even the bad decisions. Imperialism is the belief that if someone truly supports their country that they would be willing to spread these ideals to other countries through democracy or in this case, war. The terrible effects of these combined were shown throughout the First World War. Many countries started getting a more advanced sense of excessive pride to their country and when imperialism began spreading decided to spread their “supreme” ideals to the rest of the world.
What is CDA? Fairclough (1995, p. 132) has described CDA as aiming to “systematically explore often opaque relationships of causality and determination between (a) discursive practices, events, and texts, and (b) wider social and cultural structures, relations and processes; to investigate how such practices, events and texts arise out of and are ideologically shaped by relations of power and struggles over power.” CDA is now adopted and practiced by a huge posse of applied linguists, sociologists, political scientists, students of the media and cultural studies. 2.1. Principles of CDA Locke (2004) summarizes the key tenets of CDA as: • The existing social order stems in history, and is relative, socially created, and transitive. • The social structure and processes are dependent more on certain aspects of reality dubbed as discourses than on individuals.