Will Kymlicka writes in the Multicultural Citizen that national minorities and immigrant groups should be given room and protection to practice and express their cultures. He argues that cultural expression is key to individual freedom and allows for a greater freedom of opportunity. National minorities, as large ethnic minority populations within a nation that have historic and cultural ties to the land (Kymlicka, p. 79), should be given the utmost cultural freedom and protection culture as it enhances the nation as a whole. Immigrant groups, who by immigrating have given up their homeland, will in time assimilate into a dominant national culture, but should be given strong protection from discrimination and room to express themselves. But what happens when a national minority oppresses immigrant groups to protect its own culture? Bill 60 of the Québec government pits national minorities against immigrant groups complicating Kymlicka’s views on liberal freedom and culture. The answer to this problem lays in looking back to John Locke’s political society to show national minorities take priority over immigrant group in relation to culture.
‘Societal Culture’ is the focus of Will Kymlicka which he defines as “a culture which provides its members with meaningful ways if life across a full range of human activities” (Kymlicka, p. 76). Most nations consist of a single dominant culture that determines the shape and practice of a nation’s institutions. Immigrants leave their homelands to live within this new nation and its culture. They tend to come as individuals or small families and settle across the nation. They are expected to learn the language and culture of their new home and usually within two generations they will lose their ...
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...ng religious expression in the public body should be upheld for the rights of a national minority’s cultural society trump those of immigrants because immigrants must give up some of their liberty to live within their new resident society and in themselves do not constitute a societal culture.
Locke, John. "Second Treatise of Government." in Political Philosophy: The Essential Texts. Edited by Steven M. Cahn. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. 316-320,321-329
Kymlicka, Will. "Freedom and Culture." in Multicultural Citizenship. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995. 75-101.
Bill 60: Charter Affirming the Values of State Secularism and Religious Neutrality and of Equality Between Women and Men, and Providing a Framework for Accommodation Requests. 1st Reading, Fortieth Legislature, First session (Quebec). Quebec Official Publisher 2013. Web.
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In the year 1957, Canada elected its first Prime minister without English or French root, John Diefenbaker. While growing up in the city of Toronto, because of his German name, he was often teased.  He grew up as an outcast, and so he was able to relate to the discrimination and inequality many of the minorities in Canada felt. This essay will attempt to answer the question: To what extent did Prime Minister John Diefenbaker help promote equality to the minority communities. . The minorities in this time period were the women, aboriginals, and immigrants. During his time as the Prime Minister, he was able to help protect the rights of this group because many of their rights were being abused by the society. Diefenbaker also helped the minorities to stand up for themselves and other groups. Diefenbaker was able to bring positive change to the minority communities by making an official Bill of Rights and appointing people of discriminated groups to the parliament while other members did not.
Locke, John. The Second Treatise of Government and A Letter Concerning Toleration. New York: Courier Dover Publications, 2002.
Locke's Second Treatise of Government, by far, is his most influential and important piece of writing. In it he set forth his theory of natural law and natural right. He shows that there does exist a rational purpose to government, and one need not rely on "mysticism and mystery." Against anarchy, Locke saw his job as one who must defend government as an institution. Locke's object was to insist not only that the public welfare was the test of good government and the basis for properly imposing obligations on the citizens of a country, but also that the public welfare made government necessary.
"In those States in which ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities exist, persons belonging to such minorities shall not be denied the right, in community with the other members of their group, to enjoy their own culture, to profess and practise their own religion, or to use their own
Vincent Massey (Governor General of Canada) once said,“Canada is not a melting-pot. Canada is an association of people who have, and cherish, great differences, but who work together because they can respect themselves and each other.” In other words, he describes how Canada is a very diverse place and how we should work together despite our differences in religion. Immigration poses opportunities for citizenship: for building a society in which all Canadians belong. Although, to what extent should immigrants continue to promote culture and religion? Some may argue that we need to put restrictions on promoting religion like the code adopted in Hérouxville; which forbade women from being stoned alive
Ethnic Minorities in Inner City Areas (Carr P175-P180 and Independent Review) It can be said that ethnic minorities do remain concentrated in the inner areas of many MEDC cities, as can be seen in the 1991 census data, which shows disproportional numbers of ethnic minorities in London and major cities in the Midlands and the North of England. This can also be seen in the USA but is more significant as ethnic minorities make up a much lager proportion of the population, due to the higher rate of natural increase amongst the Hispanic and Asian segments of the ethnic groups, as well as their continued immigration into the cities. A centre for such cultural diversity in the USA is New York, which has the highest proportion of ethnic minorities amongst its population. The distribution of ethnic minorities around the county is also similar with the UK and USA for example most black people are concentrated in the north of the USA and most Hispanic people are concentrated to the South and the West Coast. Ethnic minorities have always traditionally been concentrated in central areas ever since the first wave of immigration in 1948-1968 where they left the unemployment and poverty in their own country to look for work in semi skilled low paid jobs where black Caribbeans filled the labour gap left by the second world war initially in cities such as London to work on the Underground transport system, then immigrated to fill labour requirements in rapidly expanding industries such as the textile industry in Bradford which attracted many immigrants from the Indian Subcontinent.
A main point and perhaps the premise of Kymlicka’s argument in a few words is that ‘Freedom is linked to culture’. His argument was that in order to truly consider ourselves free, we have to belong to a culture. In particular, Kymlicka argues in favour of minority rights, his argument therefore centres on the point that understanding and making sure minority groups continue to exist stands in accordance with liberal thought on justice and can be a factor in enlarging the freedom of individuals. Kymlicka then uses the works of the likes of Ronald Dworkin, John Stuart Mill and John Rawls to support his argument. (Triadafilopoulos, 1997, p. 267) While it is important to note that Kymlicka’s argument is valuable especially in terms of his scope and clarity and especially in the fact that the principles outlined in his work has helped in the greater understanding of the problems of cultural, ethnic and racial conflict, Kymlicka’s argument also falls short of being compelling in certain areas. Kymlicka fails to cater for the implications his initial arguments create, for instance he neglects to specifically address what institutional protection should be given to minority rights. (McDonald, 1996, p. 293) However, Kymlicka is the first to admit that his argument has grey areas. Nevertheless, he makes a persuasive argument on the reasons why members of a national minority need access to their own culture.
I am not a child of immigrants, but maintaining one’s culture is a universal struggle in a land far from one’s ethnic origins. Lahiri suggests that without cultural connections such as family and friends, one’s culture can simply vanish if they are not in the land of ethnic origin. I have found this to be true within my own
In a world where society is mostly driven by our faults, family can be a relative term that brings it all back down to earth. Since societies can be extremely divided at times, it is important to have a back bone and a community that understand your own values, customs, and practices. It has been said that “minority group” families, which in Canada or the United States, could be considered anyone who isn’t Caucasian, are less stable in form and function than families who are a part of the general societal “majority”. Throughout this essay, I would like to discuss how untrue this statement is. From racial and cultural differences, to relying on each other and to growing as a unit, it is evident that minorities can have an even stronger relationship than those from the majority.