National Cultures and Organizational Cultures

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Introduction: (Hofested, 1980) Culture consists of values, attitude , assumptions ,understandings & goals that are learned from one generation, imposed by the current generation, & passed on to succeeding generations. Culture consists in showy way of thinking, feelings & reacting, ideas & values. It is a community’s set of shared hypothesis about how the world works & what ideals are worth determined for. The essential core of culture consist of traditional values. Values form the blocks of the culture. “ The collective programming of the intellect which distinct the members of one human group from another”. It can also be defined as the cumulative of similar features that influence a human group’s response to its environment. The word “culture” is usually reserved for societies, nations, groups; it can also be applied to an organization, a profession, or a family. Culture can greatly affect a country’s laws. Culture is fundamental base of a society. It has long-lasting influence on behaviour of its people. Values are programmed early in our lives, we follow them, hence they are non- rational. Value is defined as “ a broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others”. The communal rules have led to the progress & outline maintenance of institutions in society with a meticulous structure & way of implementation. These include the family, educational systems, politics, & legislation. Culture impacts what people value, so it affects people’s financial systems & efforts to endow in education. Cultural characteristics influence the ways members of organization behave towards the organization, to one another as well as their attitudes towards the practices in an organization. Cultural diversity: Due to globalization th... ... middle of paper ... ...ons for expatriate managers. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 5 (2), 156-179. Hofstede ,G. (1980). Hofstede’s Culture’s Consequences- International Differences in Work Related Values. Cross- Cultural Research & Methodology, 5, 18-21. Hofstede, G . (1983). The cultural relativity of organizational practices & theories. Journal of International Business Studies ,14 (2), 75-89. Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s Consequences : Comparing Values, Behaviours, Institutions & Organizations across Nations (2nd ed.). USA, Sage. Lecture Notes given by the lecturer Dr. Robert Khan. Saini,D.S, & Budhwar,P.S. (2004). Managing Human Resources in Asia – Pacific. New Delhi, Routledge. Swaminathan, V, & Kashyap , M. (2012). User Experience across cultures : A study. Infosys Opinions, 1 (1). Trompenaars,F, & Wooliams,P. (2004). Business Across Culture.Wiley.
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