What does mean Nanoindentation? Nanoindenter is basically used for securing the mechanical characteristics or properties at micro or nano-scale with the help of powerful technology known as Nanoindentation. Nanoindentation is utilized for securing the parameters of material for example hardness (H), elastic modulus (Es), viscous or plastic parameters with the help of experimental readings of penetration (h) and indenter load (P). It must be note down that forces, those are involved, are normally in the range of micro-newton or mili-newton and depth will also be in the range of nanometers. It must be recalled that very little volume of material having order of about several tens of nanometers might be determined with the only tip of nanoindenter and characteristics of material might be determined for example a very small piece of material [1-2].
INTRODUCTION. Nanotechnology is the study manipulating the properties of various materials. In the nano regime (1-100 nm) the particles behaves entirely different from there bulk state, showing some novel properties. Materials having multiple functionalities are one of the top fields of interests. Textiles showing the anti-microbial properties can be tailored via nanotechnology.
Chapter 1: Introduction to Nanotechnology 1.1 Nanotechnology - definition & meaning Nanotechnology literally means any technology on a nanoscale (less than the size of 100 nm) that has applications in the recent and modern advancement. Nanotechnology is a field of science and technology whose theme is the control of size of matter. Generally, nanotechnology deals with developing materials, devices or other structures possessing at least one dimension sized from 1-100 nm. In other words, it is the design, characterization, production and application of structures, devices and systems by controlling shape and size at nanometer scale . Nanotechnology is multidisciplinary field including material science, interface & colloid science,
Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular level, on the length scale of 1 – 100 nanometers. 2. Creating and using structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because they are very small. 3. The ability to control and manipulate on the molecular level.
Given such advantages as low weight compared to strength and toughness, laminated composites are now used in wide range of applications. Their increasing use has underlined the need to understand their principle mode of failure TENSILE TEST This is the basic mechanical test w... ... middle of paper ... ... flexural modulus at approximately 0.50 volume fraction of fibre. It is observed that the flexural strength of all fibres considered in the present study increases with volume fraction in the order of sisal, coir and sisal-coir composite. IMPACT TEST Introduction Impact test is used to measure the resistance to failure of a material to suddenly applied force or instantaneous blow. Notched impact is a single point test that measures a materials resistance to impact from a swinging pendulum.
Nanoparticles Nanoparticles are defined as the microscopic particles with at least one dimension less than 100 nm. Nanoparticles are of immense scientific interest because of their vast potential applications in biomedicines, computer, electronics, and defense industries. Nanoparticles are of great scientific and technological interests because they can effectively act as bridge between the bulk form and atomic or molecular structures of the materials. Bulk materials possess constant physical and chemical properties regardless their sizes while nano-scaled materials possess varying properties depending on their sizes [Marignier, J.L., Belloni, J., Delcourt, M.O., Chevalier, J.P. Microaggregates of nonnoble metals and bimetallic alloys prepared
Heat transfer of nanoparticle suspensions in turbulent pipe flow is studied theoretically. The main idea upon which this work is based is that nanofluids behave more like singlephase fluids than like conventional solidliquid mixtures. This assumption implies that all the convective heat transfer correlations available in the literature for single-phase flows can be extended to nanoparticle suspensions, provided that the thermophysical properties appearing in them are the nanofluid effective properties calculated at the reference temperature. In this regard, two empirical equations, based on a wide variety of experimental data reported in the literature, are used for the evaluation of the nanofluid effective thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity. Conversely, the other effective properties are computed by the traditional mixing theory.
CsBi4Te6 is very responsive to the type and level of doping agent used. Low doping levels significantly affect the charge transport properties of CsBi4Te6. Appropriate p-type doping of CsBi4Te6 with SbI3 or Sb gives rise to a high ZT max of 0.8 at 225 K. 3.8. Nanostructured thermoelectric Materials: Several nanostructured thermoelectric materials have been developed so far, some of them are; 2D thermoelectric nanomaterials: quantum wells and superlattices, 1D thermoelectric nanomaterials: nanowires, Nanocomposites: Bi2Te3-basednanocomposites. Bi2Te3 and their related nanocomposites, the best thermoelectric materials at room temperature, are extensively used for the first thermoelectric devices for commercial Peltier elements.
Localized surface elasticity maps of composite materials with penetration depths less than 10nm can be found using SPM with nano mechanical testing procedures. Nano indentation hardness and the young’s modulus of elasticity can be measured with a depth of indentation as low as 1nm. Scratching and indentation on the nano scale are powerful ways to screen for adhesion and resistance to deformation of ultrathin coatings. These studies provide insight into failure mechanisms of the materials and thin coatings. SPM in nano mechanical testing provides insight into the surface characterization and provided glimpse of failure mechanisms study.
Analysis of the experimental data by different models enables us to confirm the common origin of the charge transport and dielectric relaxation of these silver-PANI nano-composites. Qualitative study of the relaxation dynamics of the present systems and estimation of various disorder parameters such as optimal hopping distance, localization lengths etc., would help us to outspread the strategies for the fabrication of new organic semiconducting nano-structured devices. Thus, the present study is not only essential for the rational design of different types of devices, it will also contribute to the general understanding of physics of materials characterized by charge localization and disorder which was not delineated in the previous ones reported.