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NSAID`s and Immunotoxicity

analytical Essay
1350 words
1350 words
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Immuno-toxicity: It is defined as a condition where an immunotoxin adversely affects immune system. An Immunotoxin is a human made protein which consists of protein linked to a toxin. The protein acts in “targeting” specific cells, which are killed when the protein binds to such cells and the toxin is taken in through a process called “endocytosis”. Immunotoxicity comprises direct toxicity to components of the immune system, resulting in suppressed function or inadvertent stimulation. The immune system consist of complex network of cells and soluble mediators that interact in a highly regulated manner to generate immune responses, consequently inappropriate immune responses might lead to allergic and auto immune diseases. NSAIDs: NSAIDs (Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) have antipyretic and anti-inflammatory actions in different measures. They act mainly on peripheral pain mechanisms and do not cause physical dependence or depress CNS. Although the risk of adverse effects from NSAIDs increases with long term usage, they are a reliable and effective treatment for control of moderate pain. The most common NSAIDs are aspirin, phenylbutazone, diclofenac, paracetamol, ibuprofen, and ketoprofen. Few NSAID`s and there structures: Aspirin Uses: Besides, having regular antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects, it is believed to have antioxidant effects (Ataollah, 2011) via its ability to scavenge-OH radicals. Ibuprofen: Uses: Migraine treatment (Evers, 2011) Paracetamol: Uses: Most common household drug Mechanism: There are different types of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes i... ... middle of paper ... ...Early Pregnancy Linked to Risk for Miscarriage, Canadian Medical Assosciation Journal, 110454. 4. Mennear, John H, White, Kimber L,; Komocsar, Wendy J.; Khan, K. Nasir;. Jr.; Furst, Sylvia M.; Peachee, Vanessa L.; Screening drugs for immunotoxic potential: I. Assessment of the effects of conventional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and selective COX-2 inhibitors on in vitro and in vivo phagocytic activity, 2004, Vol-1,149-158. 5. Kushima, Kiyoshi; Fujiwara, Michio; Oda, Keiko; Sakuma, Shozo; Furusawa, Shuichi; Effect of prenatal administration of NSAIDs on the immune response in juvenile and adult, 2007, Vol-232,257-267. 6. PanahYab, Ataollah ;Bagheri Sadeghi, Golshan; Nafisi, Shohreh; Interaction of aspirin and vitaminc with bovine serum albumin,2011,105,198-202. 7. Husstedt, I. W.; Evers, S. Migraine during pregnancy and breast feeding, 2011, 44, 969-973

In this essay, the author

  • Explains that nsaids have antipyretic and anti-inflammatory actions in different measures. they act mainly on peripheral pain mechanisms and do not cause physical dependence or depress cns.
  • Explains that besides having regular antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects, it is believed to have antioxidant effects via its ability to scavenge-oh radicals.
  • Explains that nsaids can be administered via different routes, but oral administration is the most common.
  • Opines that it is generally safer to administer nsaids, however, excess dosage or improper dosage regimens might lead to toxicity, especially in people with atypical health conditions, pregnant women and children.
  • Describes rang, dale, m., ritter, j. and flower, r.
  • Cites hamid reza nakhai-pour's article, nsaids in early pregnancy linked to risk for miscarriage, in the canadian medical assosciation journal.
  • Evaluates the effects of conventional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and selective cox-2 inhibitors on in vitro and in vivo phagocytic activity.
  • Analyzes the effects of prenatal administration of nsaids on the immune response in juvenile and adult.
  • Explains panahyab, ataollah; sadeghi, golshan; nafisi, shohreh. interaction of aspirin and vitaminc with bovine serum albumin.
  • Defines immunotoxicity as a condition where an immunotoxin adversely affects the immune system.
  • Explains that while nsaids have many pharmacological actions, their anti-inflammatory qualities are considered to be most important.
  • Explains that nsaids are categorized into indirect and direct immunotoxicity. they are believed to induce immuno allergic hypersensitivity reactions, while many analgesics do not.
  • Explains that overdoses of nsaids can lead to vomiting, nausea, liver damage, and acetaminophen metabolites. helicobacter pylori infection is a common risk factor.
  • Explains that nsaids can cause liver and kidney damage, which is caused by reactive, oxidative metabolites. oxidative bioactivation can be countered with antioxidants, such as vitamins e and c, selenium, and whey.
  • Explains that the wide spread use of nsaids has given rise to research on the interaction between them and the immune system.
  • Reports that nsaids use during early pregnancy is linked to twice the risk of miscarriage and congenital malformations. paracetamol, asa, and ibuprofen are also possible during pregnancy.
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