Women who ignore the social stigma are placed in a category that does not exist for men; a box of damnation, gaining degrading names, stereotypes, and typically are looked at as a physical being/ an object, rather than a human being who deserves respect. Sexuality is the hypocrisy that is “acceptable” among the people, and in the simplest of statements, it’s wrong. In America, we are raised with the viewpoint that it is acceptable to use language in a way that makes a woman feel lesser than who she deserves to be if she is a sexual being, like that of a man. “There has been a shadow cast over that part of our beings, as if our sex dwelt in the cave-sucking underneath, relating to darkness and to death, the devouring dark side of nature.” (Chester, 1988, p.3) Through this research I’m dedicated to finding ... ... middle of paper ... ...ce Journal, 44, 677-686. Elmerstig, E., Wijma, B., Sandell, K., & Berterӧ, C. (2012).
Another social identity or status is sexual orientation. Often society decides what social statuses or identities are acceptable. American Society functions on the principle of heteronormativity. The constructionist perspective theory believes that social and cultural norms define appropriate gender behavior and s... ... middle of paper ... ...these benefit that are denied to same-sex couples make it difficult for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals to protect themselves from serious illnesses or bereavement through medical leave, social security claims. In all, many view lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender lifestyles as deviant and immoral.
These socialized gender types make it hard for people who don’... ... middle of paper ... ...“male” and label those that deviate from the social norm as homosexual. Fag Discourse is less about sexuality and more about maintaining gender inequality and the boundaries of masculinity. Gender is implicated in Fag Discourse in the way that the hetero-normative nature dictates what makes and what doesn’t make a faggot. Attributed gender roles tell one how to behave appropriately. Gender roles and sexuality are always being constructed and reconstructed.
Some argue that the film works to consider the transgressive potential of the gender establishment within a lesbian context, which reduces and eventually, annuls Brandon 's gender. Although Brandon ﬁnds himself in the position of having to say, “I can explain” to people, these scenes are also framed to focus attention toward Brandon’s confusion and frustration over why any explanation is necessary, why others cannot accept him for who he believes he is. In this way, the narratives encourage the recognition of Brandon’s own experiences of sexual identity and validate what he believes to be his true nature. The underlying message in all of the scenes in which Brandon must offer some explanation for his masculine identity is that the confusion surrounding his sexual identity does not reside in him, but in others, in the intolerance they feel toward those who violate normative heterosexuality. It is
Ideologies of objectification and forced repression of sexuality conglomerate and monopolize women’s lives. Healthy sexual self- discovery is replaced by the adaptation of widely accessible representations(such as media portrayals) of women(Costa, Nogueira, Lopez 6). A woman, instead of being able to find her own sexuality and grow into her own womanly identity, may contrarily be forced to accept gender normativity and play into stereotypes because “according to society” these are women’s identities. Here is an account of one woma... ... middle of paper ... ...f our various life endeavors bring us closest to that fullness”( 54,55). The erotic is very much rooted in a strong understanding of self, fundamental to the self-worth that women of society, of every culture, so desperately need.
In the western society, one of the core values is traditional gender roles. We expect everyone to identify as the sex they were born as, and accept the gender roles that are placed upon us, such as that men have to act in a masculine and dominate behavior and women have to be sensitive and lady like. Although, not only are these social expectations wrong, but they are also harmful to anyone who does not conform to a gender binary. Yet, many people are uninformed on what a non-gender conformist is, it is anyone who’s gender does not match the sex they were born as (ex: transgender man or woman, non-binary, gender queer). Also, any person whose identity matches the sex they were born as is known as cisgender.
Lastly I will touch upon the responses lesbians in America have disclosed as a means to normalize lesbianism and reduce its negative stereotypes, as well as mention grass root organizations that have been created to fight against the inequality present i... ... middle of paper ... ...e need for women’s dependence on men. Unfortunately, compulsory heterosexuality is reinforced daily through multiple social institutions including, religion, literature, and politics. Compulsory heterosexuality has contributed to the confinement of women in lower paying jobs than men due to the sexual marketability required of women to be heterosexual feminine woman. The pressure to be heterosexual in the workforce then and in present day America stretches out to society turning women into sexual pray feeding the dominance of men especially in the workforce. This reality has caused a disturbance within the feminist movement for it continues to disempower not allowing for the growth of sexualities like lesbianism.
Pharrs’ readings are examples of an effort to resist this heteronormative normalization of heterosexuality for women with the concept of lesbian batting. The concept of ‘lesbian batting’ is the act of classifying other women as a lesbian, based on certain perceived behaviours that don’t seem feminine or women like. (p114) Unlike, Adams’ and Chenier’s beliefs, Pharr acknowledges that our society is normalizing heteronormative relationships, yet emphasize that it’s also normalizing homonormative intimacies through this act of batting. Lesbian batting is resistance towards Adam’s belief because this act of batting is normalizing lesbians throughout a heteronormative dialogue. Though the action of lesbian batting is used as an insult towards strong women who “resist[s] male dominance and control”, (p.114), this labeling is an acknowledgment of homosexuality through our heteronormative society.
Society puts so much emphasis on gender appropriation that people fear the outcome of not fitting into a category of male or female because there is no inbetween. Men are supposed to dominate with aggression while women enable them by remaining vulnerable and submissive. Both authors believe that there are no natural character traits in men and women and that the creation of these differences were culturally created in an effort to keep women oppressed by male
While lesbian culture is meant to be a challenge to these heterosexual norms, and yet its definition of butch-fem roles performs its own marginalization that ultimately reinforces traditional male-female roles. Interestingly, it also uses this power structure to establish the racial exclusions of non-white women that can be traced through the history of European colonization. In relation to how sexual minorities like lesbians are marginalized by the power elite in society, Judith Butler explains the politicization of sexuality through the performance of sexual identity by constantly rearticulating and re-establishing heterosexuality as the norm. Ironically, the term “heterosexual” cannot claim authority as ... ... middle of paper ... ...lizing oppositions. Yet, why are these clear defined boundaries of sexuality placed with such importance?