...genital thyroid abnormalities, autoimmune disorders, iodine deficiency, the removal of the thyroid following surgery to treat severe hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. Symptoms include but are not limited to; abnormal weight gain, tiredness, baldness, cold intolerance, and bradycardia. This disorder is treated with hormone replacement therapy, such as levothyroxine.
Today in America thyroid disease is becoming a much larger issue and the worse part of this problem is that many people are not yet diagnosed. This is due to the lack of education and awareness about thyroid disease. There are many different types of diseases but the one that I am passionate about is hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism, or underactive thyroid is when the thyroid is no longer able to produce triiodothyronine, also known as T3 and thyroxine, also referred to as T4. Some of the symptoms include unexpected weight gain, tiredness, depression, or slow movements and thoughts. Most of the time many people notice the way that their bodies act on what they are feeling to their physicians. Many Americans struggle with this disease that
The thyroid gland is found in the front of the neck and produces two main hormones. The hormones are called thuroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3). Together these hormones regulate the body’s metabolism by increasing energy use in cells, regulate growth and development, help to maintain body temperature and aid in oxygen consumption. These two hormones are regulated by hormones produced by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. The hypothalamus senses changes in body’s metabolic rate and releases a hormone known as thyropin-releasing hormone (TRH). This hormone then flows through connecting vessels to the pituitary gland which signals it to release another hormone. This hormone is known as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH then makes its way to the bloodstream until it reaches the thyroid where it is then signaled to activate T3 and T4 production . This mechanism is controlled by a negative feedback loop meaning that when there is a sufficient amount of thyroid hormones in the blood stream, this will signal back to stop production of thyroid stimulating hormones. Complications occur when the thyroid hormones keep increasing even though there is already a sufficient amount of T3 and T4 in the blood stream. This process of over expression of thryroid hormones is known as hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism is a general term that includes any disease that has a consequence of an overabundance of thyroid hormones. Hyperthyroidism is a general term but there are many variant diseases that are in the hyperthyroidism category. These diseases include diffuse toxic goiter, Basedow’s disease, thyrotoxicosis, Parry’s and Graves’ disease.
The diagnosis of hyperammonemia may be challenging and requires a high index of suspicion. However it should be considered when a clear cause of altered mental status is not obvious after basic investigations. As an initial step, it is advisable to exclude hypo or hyperglycemia, azotemia, liver failure, electrolyte imbalance, sepsis, structural and vascular pathologies like stroke and CNS involvement by cancers. Thereafter the evaluation can be expanded to consider less common etiologies. In terms of common presenting features, those that have been described tend to occur at a serum ammonia level of 1.5 times the upper limit of normal serum ammonia and include a spectrum of progressive lethargy, confusion, weakness, ataxia, agitation, seizure, stupor, coma and death.
Hypothyroidism is a chronic disease that is part of the endocrine system. Hypothyroidism is due low or lack of tri-iodothryonine (T3) and tetraiodothyronine (T4) thyroid hormones being produced by the thyroid gland. The lack of thyroid hormones could be due to iodine or thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) deficiency or underactive thyroid gland (Sherwood, 2012). Thyroid hormones T3 and T4 are involved in almost every part of the body. It is ten times more prevalent in female than male, which affects about 4.6% of U.S population (Lellis-Santos et al, 2011). In the most cases, the symptoms are cold intolerance, fatigue, bradycardia and weight gain. Depending on the cause on hypothyroidism, a goiter may develop, which is the enlargement of the thyroid gland. In most cases taking thyroid hormone supplement is an effective treatment.
Additionally, high PTH level have been found to have a strong association with several cardiovascular conditions including valvular and myocardial calcification, arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease, left ventricular hypertrophy, conduction disturbances, and lipid abnormalities (29-39). Patients with PHPT rarely present with parathyroid crisis, which may occur when people with PHPT have other illneses that result in significant fluid loss with subsequent rise in blood calcium and PTH levels. During the crisis, patients may experience nausea, vomiting, sever abdominal pain, stomach ulcers, pancreatitis, and altered mental status ranging from confusion to coma (40).
A 54 year old female was presented with complaints of lethargy, excessive thirst and diminished appetite. Given the fact that these symptoms are very broad and could be the underlying cause of various diseases, the physician decided to order a urinalysis by cystoscope; a comprehensive diagnostic chemistry panel; and a CBC with differential, to acquire a better understanding on his patient health status. The following abnormal results caught the physician’s attention:
...opment of hepatic encephalopathy to worsen (Seifter, 2007). Hyperaldosteronism has also been associated with hypokalemia leading to renal cystic disease. Cysts begin to appear in the collecting duct epithelium leading to interstitial fibrosis. The cause of these cysts are unknown however ammoniagenesis seems play a role (Seifter, 2007). Furthermore, increased urination or polyuria is another complication. Increased thirst from the increase of angiotensin II also acts on the thirst center in the hypothalamus (Crumley, 2009). This is a mild form of diabetes insipidus.
When a client arrives in the emergency room with complaints of asthenia, malaise, headache, weight gain, and decrease in urination, the key factor is urine retention. That clue alone may lead to a diagnosis of acute renal failure. Acute renal failure is the loss of the ability to filter, remove, and balance fluid and electrolytes in your body. There are three types of causes, all of which have a necessary plan for treatment.