The centuries-old dilemma between materialism and spiritualism has embedded itself in the Western conscience as the defining question of reality and manifests itself in works of literature throughout the ages. The relationship between materialism and spiritualism is ambiguous in and of itself. The philosophy of materialism postulates that development and change in society is centered around the interactions between material objects, whereas spiritualists envision a predominantly immaterial world that dictates all material interactions. However, asking this dichotomous question is analogous to asking which came first, the chicken or the egg? Logically it seems that both philosophies make a justifiable point, however, if we closely examine the numerous intricacies embedded in the fabric of nature, the answer becomes evident, just as it becomes evident, after biological experimentation, that the egg came first.
A major difficulty facing researchers is that the role of the historian in the Dark Ages was rather flexible; a mixture of storyteller and propagandist whose regional traditions, personal prejudices, and loyalties were bound to greatly influence the nature of its material (Coglan 214). In Arthur, Richard Barber clarifies this fact and speaks of the early tendency to use history as "…an inspiration or as a warning to the men of the present, or as part of a vast divine scheme for man's spiritual salvation" (Coglan 7). Another problem facing historians is that the earliest sources we have are never originals, but copies, and considering their age we must allow for the propagation of errors. One possible such error is found in the Annals of Wales, written in the tenth century. Its entry concerning the Battle of Badon claims that Arthur carried Christ's cross on his shoulder for three days, but it's likely that "shoulder" should instead be "shield," due to confusion between the Welsh words "scuid" and "scuit" (Alcock 51-52).
Controlling Wild Ones: Creations of Masculinity in Ancient Mesopotamia Little did the world know before the mid-1800s that an expansive, detailed work of literature from the Third Dynasty of Ur was about to be discovered. Described as the world’s first great work of literature, The Epic of Gilgamesh is normally thought an applicable document to portray the first inklings of humanity. As history tells any careful reader, clearly this is not the case. The Epic of Gilgamesh and the characters within the epic poem are instead descriptive representations of a certain time period documented once for lore. This instance and the epic story brings forth many questions: what does it mean to be a god?
Whether it is through the spoken word or the written text. The lives of those who lived thousands of years ago, fictional or real can be relived when these stories are retold. “The Epic of Gilgamesh” is a story that is one that takes this to the extreme. One of the first recorded human stories, it takes one on a journey rooted in ancient mysticism and culture. This aside, the text is oddly relatable; delving into aspects of everyday life that exist to this day.
The Epic of Gilgamesh is a legendary poem dated way back to early Mesopotamia. This book is extremely important because is often refereed to as the first surviving epic poems in literature. The Epic of Gilgamesh was written and amazingly preserved on clay tablets. This story revels the adventures and journeys that the great king of Uruk, Gilgamesh, embarked on. In Mesopotamian culture, dreams were very important to Mesopotamians.
Spatt, Hartley S. Critical Assessment states The Sumerian tale of Gilgamesh is the eldest to have lasted into the up-to-date era. Furthermore the main worth of Gilgamesh is that it unlocks a door for new readers into their shared past. The epics substance shows much about humanity’s first society with religious concerns, nevertheless its method reveals similar visions about the association between teaching and the entertainment in the oral culture. The epic of Gilgamesh shows together a wish to recalls the great hero’s importance and a responsibility to learn lessons all of his mistakes. The main thing people absorb from the epic is that Gilgamesh constructs large walls around himse... ... middle of paper ... ...und stating that Gilgamesh learned from all of his trails and tribulation.
At the core of almost every sophisticated culture is a creation myth: a story of how that culture came to be, a tale that attempts to put in universal context the place that society has in the world. From these creation myths, it is possible to draw far-reaching conclusions about the structure and functioning of these societies. The universality of the creation myth and the similar themes that bind these myths together in diverse cultures around the world points to the importance these myths hold in the cultures they define. They manage to convey identity, often serve as a model for daily life or as a template for important values, and they provide a concrete reason for the existence of that culture - they are crucial in supplying a context for the functioning of any society . By dissecting these creation myths, it is possible to arrive at fundamental truths about a culture, and, in turn, examine how the culture’s essential aspects inform the particulars of its creation myth.
This problem has baffled philosophers throughout the ages and was a major topic of thought for the likes of Renee Descartes, John Locke, Bishop George Berkeley, and David Hume. Let us briefly try to understand what existence meant to these great minds by means of an overview of their theories of epistemology – the theory of knowledge. Renee Descartes – De... ... middle of paper ... ...nce these arguments are compelling, but when we look more closely at their foundational tenants we see that there are numerous weaknesses in them that lead many to doubt that there can exist a God by any conception that we are able to imagine. The question of whether or not God exists has been at the forefront of philosophical thought for thousands of years and the debate will likely rage far into the future with battle lines being drawn and sides chosen by any who care enough to examine the arguments and form an opinion. It will forever be one of the greatest debates to ever grace human consciousness.
Trying to prove the elements in the myth as factual are contrary to the very existence of the myth. In reading Old Testament Bible myth, the question of divine inspiration versus historical truth is often debated. “A myth makes a valid statement about the origins of the world, of society and of its institutions, about the gods and their relationship with mortals, in short, about everything on which human existence depends” (Graf 3). Further, the context in which the myth was written must be taken into account when reading the story. Bronislaw Malinowski in his essay “The Role of Myth in Life” says that “The text, of course, is extremely important, but without the context it remains lifeless” (Malinowski 201).
Today, Freud’s theories are still notable and can be related to different aspects of our lives. To understand his theories better, we can apply them using our own knowledge of the ideas. One way to do this is by applying the ideas to characters in stories, like The Epic of Gilgamesh for instance. Shamash, the Sun God in The Epic of Gilgamesh, embodies both Gilgamesh’s and Enkidu’s ego and superego as described by Freud in Civilization and Its Discontents because he uses his power to guide, as well as protect, Gilgamesh and Enkidu, along with his knowledge of right from wrong, to influence Gilgamesh and Enkidu as evidence by his instruction of how to handle different situations and his disapproval when they act out of line. Shamash is one of the main gods that greatly affects the outcome of the story.