These disseminate diseases such as: oral candidiasis (oral thrush), genito-urinary disease and ocular or sinus infections which may spread to involve the Central Nervous system . Opportunistic fungal infections are mainly immunocompromised individuals such as: those with HIV, extensive surgery, haematological disorders, and those who have corticosteroids, cytotoxic and suppressive chemotherapy. As a result, their neutrophils drop to abnormal counts, a conditioning know as neutropenia. This state predisposes these patients to many opportunistic fungal infections such as: candidiasis, aspergillosis, cryptococcosis and pneumocystis among others . Candidiasis is a common fungal infection in immunocompromised individuals caused by Candida albicans- a normal oral flora in the genitourinary tract, gastrointestinal tract and on the skin.
Eliska Koorts 09 December 2013 Necrotizing Fasciitis (The Flesh Eating Disease). What is Necrotizing Fasciitis? Necrotizing Fasciitis is a bacterial infection of the soft tissue that decomposes subcutaneous tissue and skin. It may occur anywhere on the body but it is typically found in the upper and lower limbs such as hands, arms, legs and feet. The tissue degradation is rapid and mortality rate is high.
Fungal infections in immunocompromised host are common and are associated with significant mortality and morbidity. These are either endemic- caused by ubiquitous fungi such as: Histoplasma capsulatum and Mucor spps or opportunistic fungi such as: Candida species, Aspergillus species, pneumocystic jirovecii and Cyptococcus neoformans. Opportunistic fungal infections are the most common fungal infections seen in immunocompromised and are attributed to decline in CD4+ T cell counts, neutrophil counts and general immunity. They are seen in HIV patients, those who have undergone extensive surgery, patients with haematological disorders, and those who have corticosteroids, cytotoxic or suppressive chemotherapy. As a result, infections such as: candidiasis, cryptococcosis, pneumocystis pneumonia and aspergillosis are disseminated in these hosts.
Introduction Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic yeast found in soil, plants, and animals. In humans infection occurs via inhalation and deposition of spores in the lungs, in most cases. In healthy people, infection will trigger an immune response via alveolar macrophages or dendritic cells. This leads to restriction of the pathogens to benign granulomas. Exposure to Cryptococcus neoformans leads to disease in immunocompromised patients and it can be fatal.
When eaten in quantity or small amounts over a period of time it can be highly toxic. Furthermore, it is a major problem for humans in North America but even more severe for animals. Humans are susceptible to being contaminated with this poisonous fungus because ergot can grow on mushrooms, rye, wheat, and barley. These are products that humans ingest everyday. Ergot is the most notorious poison because it includes several species of ascomycete fungi with complex life cycles that parasitize the grains of various cultivated and wild grasses.
Cellulitis is an “opportunistic” infection which occurs through breaks in the skin. Redness, warmth, swelling and pain are symptoms of this infection. Seeking medical attention is a must for this infection. Cellulitis: A Skin Bacterial Infection 3 Cellulitis Infection Cellulitis is an acute spreading bacterial infection of the connective tissue, dermis and subcutaneous layers of the skin (ProQuest 07/2012 pg.5). Characterized by redness, swelling, warmth, tight/shiny skin and pain.
When their numbers grow beyond the regular amount, possibly due to a trauma or lack of hygiene, it typically leads to a pathogenic occurrence. Streptococcus and Staphylococcus are two examples of such bacteria. Streptococcus bacteria are known to cause several diseases such as streptococcal pharyngitis, meningitis, bacterial pneumonia, endocarditis, pink eye and even necrotizing fasciitis which is known as the flesh eating bacteria in which rare but causes necrosis of the superficial layers of tissue and fascia. Staphylococcus can cause many diseases, most commonly food poisoning and it is also known to cause sialadenitis which is an inflammation of a salivary gland. Although most of these diseases start as relatively minor problems, they may escalate if not treated to cause a systemic inflammatory response in which shock, severe vasodilation and even death may occur.
The pathophysiology of meningitis and encephalitis aids in the explanation and understanding of the symptoms, effects, and underlying agendas of the two infections. Meningitis is the inflammation of the meninges, membranes that encase the brain and spinal cord. Although meningitis can result from protozoal or fungal infections, bacteria and viruses typically cause the often fatal disease. Known for its sudden onset of flu-like symptoms, the infection rapidly progresses into an agonizing cascade of high fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, light sensitivity, purpura (dark discolorations of the skin caused by bleeding beneath the skin), and possibly seizures. In severe cases of meningitis, limbs or extremities must be amputated due to the appearance of purpura.
Dispersal mechanisms vary in different bacteria and this event is considered as a novel approach to treat drug resistant S. aureus which are common in body implants and catheter related infections . S. aureus is a universal pathogen which causes mild to severely life threatening diseases . This bacterium also constitutes a major cause of HAIs. According to Center for Disease Control and prevention (CDC), it was reported that S. aureus was associated with about 15.6 % of the total hospital-acquired/healthcare-associat... ... middle of paper ... ... in combination with antibiotic had more impact against S. aureus V329 biofilm cells when compared to antibiotics added alone. When the antibiotic concentration was increased by five times, there was no significant increase in log reduction of cfu count in V239 biofilm.
Onychomycosis Fungal infections are often uncomfortable conditions and they can have both physical and psychological consequences to the individual. Onychomycosis (OM) is one of the fungal diseases that results from a dermatophytic invasion of the nails. Fortunately, in the last few years, new oral treatment has successfully lowered the incidence of recurrence and side effects (Tosti & Piraccini, 1996). What is Onychomicosis? OM can be referred to as a localized infection of the nail, caused by a pathogenic fungi.