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Mutation And Natural Selection Essay

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Marika Kouda
Professor Buyagawan
Anthropology 1
September 11, 2015
Mutation and Natural Selection
What is the process of mutation? The definition states that it is “changes in DNA base as well as to changes in chromosome number and/or structure,” (Jurmain-Kilgore-Trevathan 58). Mutations can happen when there is a change in the order of the DNA bases. There are three ways mutations can take place: deletion, insertion, and substitution. Deletion happens when a base is left out from the DNA sequence. Insertion happens when extra base is added to the DNA sequence and substitution happens when the wrong base replaces the correct base of DNA. Most people view mutation negatively without understanding its positive effect. A change in specific genes
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The first person who proposed natural selection in 1858 was the English scientist Charles Darwin. According to Darwin’s theory, mutated genetic traits, which allow an individual to survive environmental changes, prevail and are passed on to the offspring. The offspring, having inherited the mutated traits, reproduces again and expands the population with the new traits. This new offspring and population have passed through the process of Natural Selection and survived. In comparison, individuals without the mutated genes or with less desirable traits may have a harder time surviving natural obstacles. Without being able to survive, these individuals will not have a chance, or have very little chances, to produce offspring and pass on its unique strand of genes. Every living organism has to constantly fight to survive. “Darwin believed that nature selects which organisms survive,” (Bierer-Lien 404). An example of natural selection is Darwin’s observation of the finches on the Galapagos Islands. “Darwin discovered different species of finches on each of the islands, with each species having a bill that was adapted uniquely for eating on its island,” (Bierer-Lien 403). The adaption of the finches’ beaks on each individual islands helped them pass the test of Natural Selection,…show more content…
First, what is evolution? “Evolution is the gradual development, or change, in species of organisms over time,” (Bierer-Lien 520). Mutation allows each individual species to have an uncountable amount of unique traits or variation within its species. These unique strands create the diversity of life and help the species survive if the process of Natural Selection occurs. An example of this diversity is the tree frog. The tree frog can blend in or camouflage with its setting to ensure survival and reproduction of it offspring. However, a gene mutation, can have a result of an albino frog. An albino frog, due to its mutated skin, would have an extremely difficult time camouflaging within its environment. This can result in a dinner invitation for its predators, limiting its chance for reproduction. “Every organism must constantly struggle to survive,” (Bierer, Lien 403). Nevertheless, the surviving species will pass on its advantageous genes to its offspring. These mutated genes will further mutate and the cycle continues. The longer the species survive, the more mutated their strands of DNA will be. These strands of DNA, when compared to its original DNA, have gone to through the process of evolution. The process of evolution, in the end, helps sustain life on
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