Muscle Strengthening Effects of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids in Resistance Trained Athletes and non-Athletes

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Anabolic-androgenic steroids are a synthetic compound which are structurally related to the male sex hormone, testosterone (Amsterdam et al.,2010, Thiblin and Petersson, 2004). Testosterone has two effects on the human body; first it helps in the development and maintenance of secondary male sexual characteristics and, secondly, it promotes muscle growth. All anabolic-androgenic steroids are derivatives of testosterone and have both anabolic and androgenic properties; which is why the use of the term anabolic-androgenic steroids is more appropriate than anabolic steroids (Kuhn, 2002). All anabolic-androgenic steroids have a varying amount of anabolic and androgenic properties (Kuhn, 2002). Testosterone acts in three ways; first, it binds to androgen receptors to allow activity; second, it reduces 5 alpha in some tissues; and third, it can be turned into estradiol and act like estrogen (Kuhn, 2002). The last two are unwanted effects in anabolic drugs because they decrease the ratio of anabolic/androgenic actively (Kuhn, 2002). Many anabolic-androgenic steroids are manufactured so that they increase anabolic activities and decrease the estrogen mimicking activity (Kuhn, 2002).

Anabolic-androgenic steroids are used by male and female athletes to increase their muscle strength and athletic performance (Amsterdam et al.,2010). Body builders also use anabolic anabolic-androgenic steroids to increase their strength as well as to increase muscle growth and size in order to win competitions (Amsterdam et al.,2010). Other than professional athletes who use anabolic-androgenic steroids alongside vigorous resistance training regimes, to improve strength and muscle growth it has been found that many males not involved in professional sports...

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