Pneumonia was linked to community-acquired infections with AND while OR was used to link adrenal cortex hormones to glucocorticoids. These searches were combined with AND th... ... middle of paper ... ...Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-aquired pneumonia in adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44(suppl 2):s27-s72. http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/citmgr?gca=cid;44/Supplement_2/S27.
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a considered both a Gram-positive bacterium and a pathogen, and is capable of causing many human diseases (Gordon & Lowy, 2008; Deurenberg, Vink, Kalenic, Friedrich, Bruggeman & Stobberingh, 2006). S. aureus is one of the most common causes of soft-tissue and skin infections (SSTIs) (Hansra & Shinkai, 2011). It can also cause post-operative infections at the wounds site, necrotizing pneumonia, and bacteraemia (Deurenberg et al., 2006). Resistance to methicillin is one of the major subtypes of this bacterium. It is then called methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (Hansra & Shinkai, 2011).
But when it gets past the power of WBCs, antibiotics are prescribed to prevent permanent damage to the body, permanent internal damage, sepsis or even death. The first antibiotic was Penicillin and this is a big component of modern day antibiotic medications such as ampicillin, amoxicillin and benzylpenicillin. Antibiotic resistance is when an antibiotic has lost its ability to effectively control or kill bacterial growth due to the bacterial organism changing its genetic makeup. In other words, the bacteria become resistant and continue to multiply despite the presence of therapeutic levels of an antibiotic. When a disease becomes antibiotic resistant, it is often considered incurable, and can pose a serious public health threat as a consequence.
2007). There is a declining rate in laryngeal cancer; however, there is sharp increase trend of cancer in tonsil and fairly stable rate in other HNC related cancer (Ryerson et al. 2008). However, decreased tonsillectomies in United States for past 40 years may be contributing to greater susceptibility of HPV in the tonsils (Ernster et al., 2007). This is brings up public health concern because HPV was usually widely known to infect mostly women and enforce to cause of cervical cancer.
COMMENTARY: Oral decontamination with chlorhexidine reduced ventilator-associated pneumonia in high-risk patients. ACP Journal Club , 68. Louis Magnotti. (June 2008). Reduction in Inadequate Empiric Antibiotic Therapy for Ventilator-Associated Pnuemonia: Impact of a Unit-Specific Treatment Pathway.
According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2013), Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus auerus (MRSA) is a staph infection that is resistant to many antibiotics. This bacteria can be spread in numerous ways that include but are not limited to; contact with infected wounds, or improper hand hygiene. Consequently, MRSA can be carried by individuals whom have no signs or symptoms of the bacteria, and ultimately can spread the infection to others (CDC, 2013). The increased rates of MRSA warrant aggressive measures to be taken in the hospital setting to decrease the continued spread. This writer’s leadership vision is to provide specific understanding about MRSA to colonized staff and patients upon admission to the hospital, thereby diminishing the re-occurrence of the bacteria at discharge.
Isolation from treatment of MRSA has been reported to be associated reduced frequency of visits by attending physicians and nurses, anxious and depressed patients, and more bedsores and falls. For health care providers, the treatment of infections of antibiotic resistant infections such as MRSA will have serious resounding economic impact: treatments costly due to... ... middle of paper ... ..., Petit, S., Gershman, K., Ray, S., & Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) MRSA Investigators. (2007). Invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in the United States. Jama, 298(15), 1763-1771.
While some countries see the impacts of tuberculosis less than others, the threat of this infectious disease looms across the horizon. Today, this organism affects one third of the population and is one of the most threatening of infectious diseases (NIAID, 2001). The BCG vaccine (Bacillus of Calmette and Guerin), is administrated in many high risk countries to combat the disease. Although scientists have improved the vaccine throughout the nineteenth century and the vaccine helps to combat some tuberculosis, its prevention is still far from perfect. The BCG vaccine is formed from a live strain of Mycobacterium bovis (WHO, 2005).
13Snydman, D. "Toxin Production by an Emerging Strain of Clostridium Difficile Associated With Outbreaks of Severe Disease in North America and Europe.” Yearbook of Medicine 2006 (2006): 109-11. Print. 14"Spread of Infection." Infection Prevention & Control Manual. 3rd ed.
This threat is caused by the evolution of the bacteria. These superbugs have evolved a resistance of antibiotics which makes them extremely difficult to treat. One article states, “In the early 1940s, when penicillin was first used to treat bacterial infections, penicillin-resistant strains of S. aureus were unknown — but by the 1950s, they were common in hospitals. Methicillin was introduced in 1961 to treat these resistant strains, and within one year, doctors had encountered methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Today, we have strains of MRSA that simultaneously resist a laundry list of different antibiotics, including vancomycin — often considered our last line of antibacterial defense.”  Furthermore, one way the MRSA have evolved is through horizontal transfer.