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Multidrug-resistant Streptococcus Pneumoniae

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Introduction
Streptococcus pneumoniae is Gram-positive bacteria, which takes spherical shape, normally present in the form of pairs. These bacteria exist naturally in the respiratory tract, but it may become a pathogenic bacteria in the event of increased its density. These bacteria associated with different types of infections, such as pneumonia, chronic middle ear infections, meningitis, bacteremia. Pneumonia is one of the six major causes leads to death in the United States and the first reason of death from infectious diseases (Garibaldi, 1995 ; Niederman, et al 1998 cited in American Thoracic Society, 2001). Diseases caused by pneumonia was not previously diagnosed clearly, consequently, the information about its pathological effects based on simple estimates (Garibaldi, 1995 ; Niederman, et al 1998 cited in American Thoracic Society, 2001). Whitney (2000) investigate that strains of bacteria have resistance to antibiotics made treatment more complicated. The main point is pneumococci becoming more resistant to common antibiotics. Whitney (2000) mainly argued that there are dramatic increases in the proportion of pneumococci that are resistant to antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents tested. This essay will firstly summarize this article and then follow by foundation and finally will discuss the impact.

Summary
It will be summarized the article of Whitney, (2000) increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant S. pneumoniae in the United States (Whitney et al 2000). The main point is pneumococci becoming more resistant to antibiotics. In the beginning of the 90s of the past century, the United States was experiencing a serious and worried about the emergence of S. Pneumoniae strains that have a high level of...

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...on of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:1455-1463.

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- Whitney CG, Farley MM, Hadler J, et al. Increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumonia in the United States. N Engl J Med 2000;343:1917-24.

- Niederman MS, Mandell LA, Anzueto A, et al. Guidelines for the management of adults with community-acquired pneumonia: diagnosis, assessment of severity, antimicrobial therapy, and prevention. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001; 163:1730–1754.

- Spellberg B, Powers JH, Brass EP, Miller LG, Edwards JE Jr. Trends in antimicrobial drug development: implications for the future. Clin Infect Dis 2004; 38:1279–86.
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