Motivation and Work

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Psychologists describe it as the desire that energizes and directs a behavior. It is derived from the exchange between nature and nurture. It is our motivation, and without it, we wouldn't get anything accomplished. When exploring our motivation, we focus on four different perspectives; instinct theory, drive-reduction theory, arousal theory, and hierarchy of needs. An instinct is a complex, unlearned behavior with a fixed pattern throughout a species. The instinct theory, which has since been named the evolutionary perspective, focuses mainly on genetically predisposed behaviors. Instead of explaining our behaviors, the first instinct theorists were basically just naming them. For instance, when someone was criticizing themselves, it was due to their "self-abasement instinct. When bragging, it was because of their "self-assertion instinct". Although it failed to decipher most of our human motives, it's assumption of genetically predisposed species-typical behavior was dead on. The instinct theory was quickly replaced by the drive-reduction theory, which focused on the interactions between our internal pulls and external pushes. This theory explains the idea of a psychological need creating an aroused state pushing us into doing something to satisfy that need. As the psychological need for something rises, so does the psychological drive. We are pushed by our need for maintaining a balanced internal state, or homeostasis. We are pulled by incentives; the positive or negative stimulation that is motivating us. Certain motivated actions actually boost arousal. Aron Ralston, who is famous for cutting off his own arm after being trapped under a boulder for 147 hours, is a prime example of this theory. High lev... ... middle of paper ... ...the same questions to all applicants, is able to more easily show who would be best for the job. ⦁ Organizational psychology - how work environments and management styles influence workers. Henry Murray defined achievement motivation as the desire for a significant mastering of skills. With the help of subgoals and implementation intentions, employees are able to see when, where and how they will reach their goals. ⦁ Human factors psychology - how machines and environments need to be designed to fit human abilities. ATMs are the perfect example of this; with the help of human factors psychologists, we are able to very complex machines. Through motivation we get everything accomplished. Where would we be without it? Works Cited: Myers, David G. Psychology Tenth Edition Chapter 11: Motivation and Work Pgs 402-457 TYPE or PASTE your text here...

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