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Motivation Theories

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Motivation is defined as “the desire to achieve a goal or a certain performance level” (Bauer & Erdogen, 2009, p.97). Motivation theories are useful tools that organizations can use to energize employees and foster a stimulating work environment. These theories are categorized as either content or process theories. Today, Bauer and Erdogen (2009) state that many organizations have applied motivation theories ,such as the goal setting theory and reinforcement theory, in order to modify their employees’ behavior in the workplace through goals and reward systems. According to the reinforcement theory, behavior that is rewarded is often repeated. As a result, many organizations have utilized this theory by tying rewards to performance (Bauer & Erdogen 2009). The goal setting theory which is used to improve performance through establishing objectives has been incorporated into daily practices by organizations such as Coca Cola, the Intel Corporation, and Microsoft Corporation. However, Bauer and Erdogen (2009) argue that simply setting goals alone does not motivate individuals .According to the goal-setting theory, goals need to be “specific, measurable, aggressive, realistic and time bound “to be effective (Bauer & Erdogen, 2009 p.129). Effective goals motivate employees because they give direction, energize people, provide challenges, and allow individuals to think outside of the box. However, Bauer and Erdogen (2009) believe that goals are only effective when employees receive feedback on their progress towards attaining them.

Thus, many organizations have developed performance appraisal systems to facilitate formal feedback to their employees about their progress. Goal attainment is tied to rewards such as bonuses, pay raises ,an...

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...An example of this is the use of performance appraisal system. Performance appraisals are useful tool to motivate employees. However, it is important that managers acquire the necessary skills to conduct effective performance appraisal interviews.

Works Cited

Bauer, T. & Erdrogen ,B. (2009). Organizational behavior. Nyjack, NJ: Flat World Knowledge Inc.

Fallon, L. F. & McConnell, C. R (2007). Human resource management in health care: Principles and practice. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.

McConnell, C. R. (2006). Umiker management skills for the new health care supervisor (4th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers

Nickols, F. (2007). Performance appraisal. Journal for Quality & Participation, 30(1), 13-16. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Segal, J. A. (2011). The dirty dozen performance appraisal errors. BusinessWeek.com, 2. Retrieved from EBSCOhost
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