Introduction to Motivation Motivation is defined as the process by which activities are started, directed and continued so that physical and/or psychological needs or wants are met (Petri, 1996). There are two types of motivation, extrinsic, and intrinsic. Extrinsic motivation is when a person performs an action that leads to an outcome that is separate from the person (Ryan & Deci, 2000) Intrinsic motivation is the type of motivation in which a person performs an action because the act itself is rewarding in some internal manner (Ciccarelli & White, 2014).
Introduction to the Drive-Reduction Theory The drive-reduction theory was discovered by Clark Hull in 1943, it was the first theory of motivation. The drive-reduction theory proposes…show more content… A pro of the drive-reduction theory is meeting the biological needs of the person, or animal. A con of the drive-reduction theory is the tensions that is created and needs to be resolved. An example of the drive-reduction theory is someone being thirsty (drive), and needing a drink, so the drives is what motivates the person to quench their thirst. A huge problem that is found with Hull’s drive-reduction theory is that the way secondary reinforcers reduce drives is not accounted for. Secondary reinforcers do nothing to reduce the biological and/or physiological needs in a direct manner. On the other hand primary drives like thirst and hunger are directly reduced. An example of a secondary reinforcer such as money will allow you to purchase a primary reinforcement, but the money itself does nothing to reduce the drive. Although, the money still does play a role in the…show more content… All people are motivated differently, each person has different drives, and needs. I believe I am extremely motivated when it comes to academics. To motivate myself I often set a goal, an example of this is at the beginning of the quarter I will tell myself that I want to get all A’s. This plays into the drive-reduction theory because I have something I want, that is causing tension. The drive in this example wanting to get good grades which pushes the need, the need is paying attention, and applying myself to the work.
Concise Summary of The Drive-Reduction Theory The drive-reduction theory was founded by Clark Hull in 1943. His theory at the time was a new approach to motivation that assumed behavior arises from needs, that cause internal drives to push the being to reduce the tension. After his theory was founded many new motivational theories were founded as well, in the 50’s and 60’s. A founder of other theories was Maslow, he created Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. These new theories are now alternatives to Hull’s drive-reduction theory. Hull’s theory is not used as much in Psychology anymore as it was back in the