Motivation And Drive Reduction Theory

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Introduction to Motivation Motivation is defined as the process by which activities are started, directed and continued so that physical and/or psychological needs or wants are met (Petri, 1996). There are two types of motivation, extrinsic, and intrinsic. Extrinsic motivation is when a person performs an action that leads to an outcome that is separate from the person (Ryan & Deci, 2000) Intrinsic motivation is the type of motivation in which a person performs an action because the act itself is rewarding in some internal manner (Ciccarelli & White, 2014). Introduction to the Drive-Reduction Theory The drive-reduction theory was discovered by Clark Hull in 1943, it was the first theory of motivation. The drive-reduction theory proposes the connection between outward behavior, and internal physiological states (Ciccarelli & White, 2014). The drive-reduction theory emphasizes many internal factors, but it focuses on how these factors maintain homeostasis (Bernstein, 2013). Homeostasis is the tendency to make make adjustments to the body temperature, blood pressure, or heart rate, making sure the body has equilibrium (Bernstein, 2013). When there is an imbalance in homeostasis, needs are created. A need is a requirement for materials that are essential for survival, and well-being. When an organism has a need, it leads to psychological tension along with a physical arousal that motivates the organism to fulfill the need and and reduce that tension, this tension is know as the drive (Hull, 1943). A drive is a physiological tension that motivates a person/animal to fulfill the need and satisfy the tension (Ciccarelli & White, 2014). Primary drives involve the needs of the body, such as sexual intercourse, hunger, and thirst. A... ... middle of paper ... ... need is paying attention, and applying myself to the work. Concise Summary of The Drive-Reduction Theory The drive-reduction theory was founded by Clark Hull in 1943. His theory at the time was a new approach to motivation that assumed behavior arises from needs, that cause internal drives to push the being to reduce the tension. After his theory was founded many new motivational theories were founded as well, in the 50’s and 60’s. A founder of other theories was Maslow, he created Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. These new theories are now alternatives to Hull’s drive-reduction theory. Hull’s theory is not used as much in Psychology anymore as it was back in the 1940’s. References: Bernstein, D. A. (2013). Essentials of psychology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Ciccarelli & White (2014). Psychology: an Exploration. 3ed. Pearson: Boston, MA. ISBN: 9780133869255

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