The civil right movement refers to the reform movement in the United States beginning in the 1954 to 1968 led primarily by Blacks for outlawing racial discrimination against African-Americans to prove the civil rights of personal Black citizen. For ten decades after the Emancipation Proclamation, African-Americans in Southern states still live a rigid unequal world of deprive right of citizenship, segregation and various forms of oppression, including race-inspired violence. “Jim Crow” laws at the local and state levels. The nonviolent protest and civil disobedient were used by the civil right activist to bring change. Many leaders within the Black community and beyond distinguished during the Civil Rights era, including Martin Luther King, Rosa Parks, Andrew Goodman and leaders of Christian organization.
A decade later, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 overruled the remaining Jim Crow laws. Describe what was the political/legal environment at the time of the Voting Right Act’s creation? Who were major proponent and opponents of the Act and why? The political and legal environment at the time of the Voting Right Act’s creation was one of constant struggle and a search for identity for Black Americans. Until the Civil Rights Act of 1964 White Democrats used their power to segregate public spaces and facilities.
[Online] [Cited: March 29, 2010.] http://www.itif.org/files/2008BBRankings.pdf. 9. Wireline Competition Bureau Homepage. Federal Communications Commission.
It decided in the case of Brown v. Board Of Education of Topeka that it was unconstitutional for states to maintain separate schools for African American and white children. This case over turned the "Separate but equal" doctrine established in the case of Plessy v. Ferguson back in 1896. (3) Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955): After the supreme court decided to end segregation, African Americans started to speak out more about their racial opinions. In Montgomery, Alabama, a bus boycott ended with a victory for the African Americans. The Supreme Court ruled that the Alabama segregation laws were unconstitutional.
Dec. 1, 1955 - Rosa Parks defies city segregation - Often called "the mother of the civil rights movement," Rosa Louise McCauley Parks, b. Tuskegee, Ala., Feb. 4, 1913, sparked the 381-day Montgomery bus boycott that led to a 1956 Supreme Court order outlawing discriminatory practices on Montgomery buses. In December 1955, returning home from her assistant tailor job in Montgomery, Parks refused a bus driver's order to surrender her seat to a white man. She was jailed and fined $14. Dec. 5, 1955 - Montgomery bus boycott- Although precipitated by the arrest of Rosa Parks, the Montgomery Bus Boycott of 1955-56 was actually a collective response to decades of intimidation, harassment and discrimination of Alabama's African American population. By 1955, judicial decisions were still the principal means of struggle for civil rights, even though picketing, marches and boycotts sometimes punctuated the litigation.
More specifically, “at the start of the twentieth century, pervasive, overt racial discrimination barred blacks from most jobs, denied them equal education, and disenfranchised them politically” (Katz, 2005). As a result, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was founded in order to obtain educational equality and the opportunity for higher education amongst African Americans (US Courts, 2014). This foundation was established in 1909. The NAACP helped to fight in favor of several court cases. To name a few, the NAACP aided the 1936 Murray versus Madison court ruling, the 1938 Missouri ex rel Gaines versus Canada, and the 1950 Sweat versus Painter case.
This famous court case, known as Brown vs. Board of Education, determined that segregation in public schools based on race was unconstitutional. This decision was the result of decades of efforts by black segregationist opponents. With black and white children attending the same schools, having equal opportunities elsewhere became increasingly desirable. It was during this period of waiting that a petite, middle-aged woman named Rosa Parks was the person to officially begin the fight for racial equality in America. On the afternoon of Thursday, December 1, 1995, Mrs.